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经济代写|宏观经济学代写MACROECONOMICS代写|ECON203 Bank reserve requirements

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经济代写|宏观经济学代写MACROECONOMICS代写|Bank reserve requirements

As we know, banks act as depositories who hold funds in safekeeping for customers either in savings or checking accounts. These accounts provide the means for individuals and businesses to pay bills and make purchases. Most of these transactions occur by way of checks or electronic funds transfers, i.e. internet banking, so cash does not physically change hands. It is simply a matter of making the proper accounting entries when funds are deducted from one account and transferred to another.

But suppose a customer needs to make a transaction in cash. He or she may walk into a bank and ask to withdraw funds from their account or simply drive up to an ATM machine and access their account from the computerized teller. If a bank maintained little or no cash on hand, there would be no funds available for the customer. So, there is a reserve requirement that directs the commercial banking system to maintain a certain percentage of deposits in cash. Generally, banks are required to maintain reserves that are roughly equivalent to $10 \%$ of total deposits, held in a combination of vault cash on hand and amounts on deposit at the Federal Reserve Bank.

While reserves were originally put in place to prevent a run on the banks, which would cause depositors to panic and withdraw their money and could collapse the banking system, the primary function of reserve requirements today, from a bank’s perspective, is to ensure that there is ample cash available to support daily bank operations. And because they are in the business, banks know the level of reserves that they must maintain on hand. To ensure proper operations, they must maintain these levels without regard to the requirements being mandated by the Federal Reserve.

Now that we have an idea of the environment that banks operate within, we can move on to discuss the role that banks play in the money supply chain.

The modern commercial banking system serves three primary functions. First, banks act as depositories, accepting deposits from customers for safekeeping and providing cash back to customers upon demand. This function dates back to a time when goldsmiths stored gold for customers. We no longer have a gold-based economy, but we still seek to deposit our money for safekeeping and, hopefully, to earn a bit of interest while it rests in our account at the bank. Further, by keeping our funds in a bank account, we are able to easily transact for goods and services by writing checks, swiping cards or entering payment information into our computers. Banks act as the clearinghouses for all of these financial transactions, settling funds between accounts.
Second, and arguably most importantly, banks supply credit to customers, lending funds to those seeking to borrow, and then profiting from the interest and fees associated with the loans. On the surface, this seems to be a matter of fact, basic service to customers. However, if we look a bit deeper, we come to realize that, by providing credit, commercial banks play a vital part in the creation and circulation of the money supply. In short, by creating credit, banks create spending power. And they do this with nothing more than accounting entries. While fairly simple, the concept is not widely understood, either in academia or by non-business individuals.

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