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# 心理学代写|心理学代考Psychology代写|PSY308 Complexity: Good or Bad

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Most commentators and researchers tacitly assume that high complexity is preferable to low, but the basic theory explicitly rejects such assumptions: it insists that either high or low IC decisions can be appropriate under different circumstances. The same is true of democratic and undemocratic government actions. As one frequently cited example goes, ‘When the sergeant yells, “Hit the ground!”, it is not a good time for collecting extensive information, considering different aspects of the situation and of possible responses and maintaining flexibility of decisions – in other words, a high-IC approach to the decision. Similarly, it may not be a good time for debate and democratic voting.

Occasions when rapid decisions are crucial are not the only ones in which low IC may be preferable to high. When faced with an implacable and dangerous enemy, open-mindedness, empathy and the search for compromise may be deadly. In the Munich negotiations of I938, UK Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain’s complexity was considerably higher than that of Adolf Hitler (Tetlock and Tyler, I996). The agreement hammered out in conference seemed to be a compromise between Hitler’s demands and the wish of Britain and France to maintain the peace while protecting Czech security (Czechoslovakia was not consulted). Chamberlain returned to England proclaiming that he had assured an honourable peace ‘for our time’; Hitler started World War II about a year (whose rhetorical style was also lower in IC than Chamberlain’s) became the heroic prime minister whose rhetoric inspired the Western defence of democracy against Nazism, and later against Stalinist Communism.

Tetlock and Tyler ( I 996$)$ provide a succinct list of characteristics that reduce the advantages of high IC. Decision-makers functioning at high levels are more prone to the ‘dilution effect’, placing too much emphasis on unimportant and sometimes irrelevant factors; they are easily distracted; they try hard to avoid responsibility for decisions that could harm others, even when not making those decisions ends up harming more, perhaps many more, people (the Munich example is a prototype here); they are willing to compromise basic values and principles that should be defended at almost any cost. The defence of democracy may well be one of those.

## 心理学代写|心理学代考Psychology代写|IC Training for Democracy

If we consider $\mathrm{IC}$ a characteristic that changes in response to changes in the stimulus environment, we may think about how to modify it for various purposes. To begin with, we should consider the possibility that any change will be limited in scope. Suspending, for the moment, our insistence that any level of IC can be optimal, depending on the circumstances, we may posit that we can identify circumstances for the desirability of either the high or the low part of the complexity dimension. Historical cases of deradicalisation illustrate the importance of cognition and the difference between the content and structure of thought. For example, attempts to change the content of hostile thinking could include ideological topics, religion, cultural influences, social connections, etc., while attempted change to the structure of thought concerns flexibility of thought, trade-offs between alternatives, perspective-taking and synthesis between recognised differentiations and higher-order concepts (Suedfeld et al., I992).

This can be done indirectly, by manipulating the circumstances of the task performance. Knowing a list of stimulus factors that affect IC, researchers can change those factors to increase or decrease the probability of different levels of complexity in the response. For example, putting an experimental participant under stress (sleep or food deprivation, the cold pressor test, time pressure, etc) will in most cases result in relatively low IC in written materials; arousing value conflict or presenting highly complex ‘model passages’ will raise it. These are obvious and at this point not very interesting manipulations, regardless of how effective they may be.

Much more interesting have been programmes aimed at changing negative intergroup attitudes by familiarising participants with the principles of high-IC cognition. We know that a negative correlation exists between $\mathrm{IC}$ and pro-violence orientations among radical and extremist groups (e.g. Conway et al., 20 I ; Suedfeld, Cross and Logan, 2013). The IC Thinking research group at Cambridge University used that fact to design a programme to reduce intergroup hostility among Christian sects and between Muslim youths and the wider British population in the UK (e.g. Boyd-MacMillan, 20I6). The IC-focused approach can be used to create openness to alternative viewpoints (e.g. Koehler, 20 i7; Savage and Liht, 2008), and thus to show the contending parties that their views of themselves and the world can be reconceptualised.

# 心理学代写

## 心理学代写|心理学代考Psychology代写|IC Training for Democracy

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。