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# 经济代写|发展经济学代写Development Economics代考|ECON204 The context

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## 经济代写|发展经济学代写Development Economics代考|The context

The economies of the Middle East have developed remarkably since the first edition was written, partly due to the second oil price boom and the much better management of surplus revenue. Although the oil price declined once again with the negative impact of Covid-19, it has subsequently revived. In the longer term, as fossil fuels are phased out to reduce the risks from climate change, the outlook for oil pricing and production is problematic. However, as this will take many decades the economies of the Middle East have time to diversify into alternative activities. The role of the state has changed with improvements in institutional capability, although the economic competency of governments and ministries varies more than ever as the gap between best practice and poor administration widens. The private sector plays a much greater role in the economies of the region, and home grown multinational companies have now emerged, but it is often difficult to delineate the boundaries between the state and the private sector.

Economic power has shifted from the northern Arab countries to the Gulf, with Saudi Arabia by far the largest economy in the region, ahead of Turkey and Iran. The economy of the UAE is now almost as large as that of Egypt. Capital flows from the economies of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) to the northern Arab states have taken off and are having a profound economic impact on the region as a whole. Labour flows remain limited however, and the policy of prioritising employment for local citizens in countries such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait has resulted in less mobility of Arab labour, apart from that of the more educated professionals. Regional integration therefore remains limited, and most trade is externally focused.

## 经济代写|发展经济学代写Development Economics代考|Approach

The intention has been to write a subject oriented book rather than a country by country study. The approach is analytical rather than descriptive, with the analytical tools drawn from the theories of economic development. The objective is to complement established texts in development economics such as that by Michael Todaro and Stephen Smith, now in its eleventh edition, ${ }^2$ Frederick Nixson, now in its second edition, ${ }^3$ or Peter Cramp, now in its fourth edition. ${ }^4$ The first is the leading American text, while the latter two are aimed at the United Kingdom market. These mainstream texts use the tools of conventional economic theory, and demonstrate how economists such as W. Arthur Lewis have constructed models from these premises which can be applied specifically to developing countries. ${ }^5$ Such approaches are categorised by economists as neo-classical, and are often described as technocratic by political scientists and international relations specialists.

There are of course many alternative approaches to development, and this book is also designed to appeal to those who have followed these traditions. The text by Michael Todaro and Stephen Smith draws on a wide range of economic concepts and theories at an introductory and intermediate level. It is specifically targeted at economics students in developing countries, and draws on economic theories and concepts which are felt to be useful to explaining development problems. Todaro places more stress on comparative economic systems, and there is a fuller discussion of the merits of the command versus the market economy, issues which are pursued here.

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