Posted on Categories:Development Economics, 发展经济学, 经济代写

# 经济代写|发展经济学代写Development Economics代考|ECON337 Pre-conditions for self-sustaining development

avatest™

## avatest™帮您通过考试

avatest™的各个学科专家已帮了学生顺利通过达上千场考试。我们保证您快速准时完成各时长和类型的考试，包括in class、take home、online、proctor。写手整理各样的资源来或按照您学校的资料教您，创造模拟试题，提供所有的问题例子，以保证您在真实考试中取得的通过率是85%以上。如果您有即将到来的每周、季考、期中或期末考试，我们都能帮助您！

•最快12小时交付

•200+ 英语母语导师

•70分以下全额退款

## 经济代写|发展经济学代写Development Economics代考|Pre-conditions for self-sustaining development

To advance from feudalism to a modern capitalist economy, it may be necessary for a type of “take-off” to occur, an idea put forward by the economic historian W.W. Rostow. ${ }^{10}$ This concept will be discussed in the next chapter in the section on industrialisation, but it is also relevant here as it is take-off which enables countries to break out of external dependency into self-sustaining growth. Such internal generation is achieved only when several pre-conditions are met, although economists, as always, disagree about what these are.

One pre-condition on which there is agreement is that the workforce should have a reasonable level of education, at least up to secondary level. This is the case in most Middle Eastern states, with the exception of Yemen and the Sudan, although it could be argued that this only applies to the younger generation. Just what qualities the education imparts to assist development is more controversial. Critical thinking is especially valued in western education, but arguably less so in the Far East, where there is more emphasis on the absorption of knowledge. Yet most countries in the Far East have taken off, and outperformed the West for the last three decades. In some respects the education systems in the Middle East are more like those of the Far East, yet economic performance is notably weaker, and take-off seems far away. Education encourages team effort in the Far East, perhaps this is the missing ingredient in the Middle East.

What determines the timing of any take-off into self-sustained growth? Is it influenced by external or internal shocks or do countries simply evolve into take-off position? In the Middle East development has been far from a smooth continuous process as there have been the politically determined shocks associated with war and revolution which have had far reaching economic implications, not only for the region, but also for the rest of the world. The 1973 oil price shock was an example of this, a direct outcome of the October war between Israel and its Arab neighbours. The subsequent embargo on oil supplies to the United States caused the oil price to rise from under $\$ 3$per barrel to over$\$11$ per barrel, bringing a substantial increase in revenue to the oil exporting states of the Middle East which could be used to finance development. Similarly in 1979 , the Iranian revolution not only had profound implications for the development of that country, but resulted in a further doubling of oil prices, which brought windfall gains for the other oil exporting states.

## 经济代写|发展经济学代写Development Economics代考|Middle East markets as bazaar economies

Markets are crucial for economic activity as within them the forces of demand and supply interact and prices are determined. The literature on economic development has increasingly focused on the role of market efficiency in facilitating development, and competition as a force encouraging that efficiency in transactions. ${ }^{12}$ How efficient are markets in the Middle East, and how does the nature of transactions correspond with that depicted in the standard economic models? The traditional markets of the Middle East, the souks of the Arab world and the bazaars of Turkey and Iran, are renowned for their bargaining, but bargaining is not the same as competition. Clifford Geertz considered how far a bazaar economy is efficient in a study of Morocco, and concluded that in its own terms that it was, ${ }^{13}$ but other more aggregate studies of distribution and pricing in the Middle East lead to rather different conclusions. ${ }^{14}$ Mark-ups on imported goods are often high, the system of exclusive agents reduces competition and choice, bribery is prevalent to circumvent import controls, all of which means countries get relatively poor value from their development budgets. ${ }^{15}$

If Middle Eastern markets function differently to those of the West, as Geertz suggests, it is worth examining some of their characteristics, and the behaviour of those involved in transactions, to ascertain the implications for development. Does the bazaar mentality have to be replaced before development can occur? The economics of information and search has clearly relevance for bazaar economies, with prices seldom marked, and normally if a seller is asked to quote a price, the quotation will depend on his view of the buyer’s cash position, his perceived interest in actually purchasing the good and if he is expected to wish to bargain or not. The parties are in asymmetrical positions. The seller for his part will have an advantage in terms of both knowledge and skills over the buyer. When bargaining commences he will have been in the situation hundreds, perhaps thousands of times before, with an experience of buyer psychology acquired over many years in what is perhaps one of the best “schools of commerce,” the bazaar.

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。