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# 金融代写|企业融资代写Corporate Finance代考|FINC231 THE BALANCE SHEET

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## 金融代写|企业融资代写Corporate Finance代考|THE BALANCE SHEET

The balance sheet is an accountant’s snapshot of the firm’s accounting value on a particular date, as though the firm stood momentarily still. The balance sheet has two sides: on the left are the assets and on the right are the liabilities and stockholders’ equity. The balance sheet states what the firm owns and how it is financed. The accounting definition that underlies the balance sheet and describes the balance is
Assets $\equiv$ Liabilities $+$ Stockholders’ equity
We have put a three-line equality in the balance equation to indicate that it must always hold, by definition. In fact, the stockholders’ equity is defined to be the difference between the assets and the liabilities of the firm. In principle, equity is what the stockholders would have remaining after the firm discharged its obligations.

Table $2.1$ gives the $20 \mathrm{X} 2$ and $20 \mathrm{X} 1$ balance sheet for the fictitious U.S. Composite Corporation. The assets in the balance sheet are listed in order by the length of time it normally would take an ongoing firm to convert them to cash. The asset side depends on the nature of the business and how management chooses to conduct it. Management must make decisions about cash versus marketable securities, credit versus cash sales, whether to make or buy commodities, whether to lease or purchase items, the types of business in which to engage, and so on. The liabilities and the stockholders’ equity are listed in the order in which they must be paid.

The liabilities and stockholders’ equity side reflects the types and proportions of financing, which depend on management’s choice of capital structure, as between debt and equity and between current debt and long-term debt.

When analyzing a balance sheet, the financial manager should be aware of three concerns: accounting liquidity, debt versus equity, and value versus cost.

## 金融代写|企业融资代写Corporate Finance代考|Accounting Liquidity

Accounting liquidity refers to the ease and quickness with which assets can be converted to cash. Current assets are the most liquid and include cash and those assets that will be turned into cash within a year from the date of the balance sheet. Accounts receivable are amounts not yet collected from customers for goods or services sold to them (after adjustment for potential bad debts). Inventory is composed of raw materials to be used in production, work in process, and finished goods. Fixed assets are the least liquid kind of assets. Tangible fixed assets include property, plant, and equipment. These assets do not convert to cash from normal business activity, and they are not usually used to pay expenses, such as payroll.

Some fixed assets are not tangible. Intangible assets have no physical existence but can be very valuable. Examples of intangible assets are the value of a trademark or the value of a patent. The more liquid a firm’s assets, the less likely the firm is to experience problems meeting short-term obligations. Thus, the probability that a firm will avoid financial distress can be linked to the firm’s liquidity. Unfortunately, liquid assets frequently have lower rates of return than fixed assets; for example, cash generates no investment income. To the extent a firm invests in liquid assets, it sacrifices an opportunity to invest in more profitable investment vehicles.

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