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# 物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|KIN202 DETERMINING ACCURACY OF CRITERION-REFERENCED STANDARDS

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## 物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|DETERMINING ACCURACY OF CRITERION-REFERENCED STANDARDS

Unlike norm-referenced standards, which use continuous variables, criterion-referenced standards create categories into which participants are classified. These categories are often dichotomies (a dichotomy is a division into two parts). Terms such as pass-fail, fit-not fit, healthy-needs improvement, masterynonmastery, or proficient-nonproficient are used to describe the dichotomy. The validity of the criterionreferenced standard can be examined by using a $2 \times 2$ contingency table. The accuracy of the criterionreferenced standard is analyzed by comparing how a participant scored relative to the criterion-referenced standard and a criterion measure that represents the person’s true state. This creates four possible options, which are illustrated in Figure 1.1. Methods are available to determine the quality of a criterion-referenced standard by estimating its reliability and validity.

Criterion-referenced test reliability examines the consistency of classification-the percentage of people consistently classified as passing or failing a test that has been administered two times. Criterion-referenced test validity refers to the accuracy of classification-the percentage of participants correctly classified by the test as passing or failing compared to their true state.

When using the type of $2 \times 2$ table in Figure 1.1, a positive test indicates the presence of whatever is being tested. In a clinical setting, a positive test for heart disease indicates the presence of heart disease. In a fitness test setting, a positive test for fitness indicates the presence of adequate fitness levels.

A negative test indicates the absence of the entity being tested. In a clinical setting, a negative test for heart disease indicates the absence of heart disease. In a fitness test setting, a negative test for fitness indicates inadequate fitness levels.

For youth fitness testing, a true positive occurs when a participant’s performance on the fitness test achieves the criterion-referenced standard and that participant’s true fitness is considered adequate for health purposes. A true negative results when a person’s performance on the fitness test does not reach the criterionreferenced standard and his or her true fitness is below a level adequate for health promotion.

## 物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTH-RELATED CRITERION-REFERENCED STANDARDS

The main challenge of the criterion-referenced approach is the setting of an appropriate standard. It is often not possible to find a criterion that explicitly defines mastery. Assume, for example, that a physical education teacher wants a criterion for the mastering of volleyball skills. Tests of mastery of complex motor skills are typically not readily available. However, other situations exist where criterion-referenced standards can be easily set. For example, some skills, such as beginning swimming, lend themselves to the criterion-referenced approach. The successful execution of these defined skills can be clearly determined and judged. Within the field of kinesiology, the setting of criterion-referenced standards for health-related youth fitness tests has received substantial attention.

The FITNESSGRAM” health-related youth fitness test provides criterion-referenced standards for aerobic fitness and body composition. These standards were validated by comparison with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. A health outcome-centered method was used to set the criterion-referenced standards (Zhu, Welk, Going, \& Cureton, 2011). The key steps of the health outcome-centered method are:

1. Determine the components of health-related fitness.
2. Select field tests and criterion measures of the components of health-related fitness.
3. Determine the relationships between the criterion measure of health-related fitness and appropriate health outcomes.
4. Set criterion-referenced standards (also called cut-off scores) based on the relationship between the criterion measures of health-related fitness and the health outcomes.
5. Cross-validate the criterion-referenced standards.
The following section summarizes this approach applied to aerobic fitness tests of the FITNESSGRAM**.

## 物理代写|运动学代写运动学代考|健康相关评价参考标准的制定

1. 确定健康相关健身的组成部分。
2. 选择与健康相关的适应性成分的现场测试和标准测量。
3. 确定与健康相关的适宜性标准度量与适当的健康结果之间的关系。根据与健康有关的健康状况的标准措施与健康结果之间的关系，设置标准参考标准(也称为截止分数)。
4. 交叉验证标准参考。

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