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# 物理代写|太阳系代写Solar System代考|RENE3000 The Solar System and Its Place in the Galaxy

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## 物理代写|太阳系代写Solar System代考|The Solar System and Its Place in the Galaxy

The origins of modern astronomy lie with the study of our solar system. When ancient humans first gazed at the skies, they recognized the same patterns of fixed stars rotating over their heads each night. They identified these fixed patterns, now called constellations, with familiar objects or animals, or stories from their mythologies and their culture. But along with the fixed stars, there were a few bright points of light that moved each night, slowly following similar paths through a belt of constellations around the sky (the Sun and Moon also appeared to move through the same belt of constellations). These wandering objects were the planets of our solar system. Indeed, the name “planet” derives from the Latin planeta, meaning wanderer.

The ancients recognized five planets that they could see with their naked eyes. We now know that the solar system consists of eight planets, at least three dwarf planets, plus a myriad of smaller objects: satellites, asteroids, comets, rings, and dust. Discoveries of new objects and new classes of objects are continuing even today. Thus, our view of the solar system is constantly changing and evolving as new data and new theories to explain (or anticipate) the data become available.

The solar system we see today is the result of the complex interaction of physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that have shaped the planets and other bodies. By studying each of the planets and other bodies individually as well as collectively, we seek to gain an understanding of those processes and the steps that led to the current solar system. Many of those processes operated most intensely early in the solar system’s history, as the Sun and planets formed from an interstellar cloud of dust and gas, $4.56$ billion years ago. The first billion years of the solar system’s history was a violent period as the planets cleared their orbital zones of much of the leftover debris from the process of planet formation, flinging small bodies into planet-crossing, and often planet-impacting, orbits or out to interstellar space. In comparison, the present-day solar system is a much quieter place, though many of these processes continue today on a lesser scale.

## 物理代写|太阳系代写Solar System代考|The Definition of A Planet

No formal definition of a planet existed until very recently. Originally, the ancients recognized five planets that could be seen with the naked eye, plus the Earth. Two more jovian planets, Uranus and Neptune, were discovered telescopically in 1781 and 1846 , respectively.

The largest asteroid, Ceres, was discovered in 1801 in an orbit between Mars and Jupiter and was hailed as a new planet because it fit into Bode’s law (see discussion later in this chapter). However, it was soon recognized that Ceres was much smaller than any of the known planets. As more and more asteroids were discovered in similar orbits between Mars and Jupiter, it became evident that Ceres was simply the largest body of a huge swarm of bodies between Mars and Jupiter that we now call the Asteroid Belt. A new term was coined, “minor planet,” to describe these bodies.
Searches for planets beyond Neptune continued and culminated in the discovery of Pluto in 1930. As with Ceres, it was soon recognized that Pluto was much smaller than any of the neighboring jovian planets. Later, measurements of Pluto’s diameter by stellar occultations showed that it was also smaller than any of the terrestrial planets, in fact, smaller even than the Earth’s Moon. As a result, Pluto’s status as a planet was called into question.

In the $1980 \mathrm{~s}$, dynamical calculations suggested the existence of a belt of many small objects in orbits beyond Neptune. In the early 1990 s the first of these objects, $1992 \mathrm{QB}_1$ was discovered at a distance of $40.9$ astronomical units (AU). More discoveries followed and over 1000 bodies have now been found in the trans-Neptunian zone. They are collectively known as the Kuiper belt. All of these bodies were estimated to be smaller than Pluto, though a few were found that were about half the diameter of Pluto.

The existence of the Kuiper belt suggested that Pluto, like Ceres, was simply the largest body among a huge swarm of bodies beyond Neptune, again calling Pluto’s status into question. Then came the discovery of Eris $\left(2003 \mathrm{UB}_{313}\right)$, a Kuiper belt object in a distant orbit, which turned out to be slightly larger than Pluto.

In response, the IAU, the governing body for astronomers worldwide, formed a committee to create a formal definition of a planet. The definition was presented at the IAU’s triennial gathering in Prague in 2006, where it was revised several times by the astronomers at the meeting. Eventually the IAU voted and passed a resolution that defined a planet.

.太阳系

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MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。