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# 电子代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考|KIT208 Behavioural interfaces, schema and metaphors

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## 电子代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考|Concept of schema

In principle, we would like to offer the user a relatively natural ${ }^2$ interaction and immersion so as to make them effective with respect to the application. In this case, we will talk about a pseudo-natural immersion (and also the interaction). What does this concept cover? First of all, we can confirm that whatever is done naturally in the real world is done unconsciously and without a great mental effort. We can, in principle, think that it will be the same in case of a virtual environment if the interaction and immersion are relatively similar to the human behaviour in the real world. Let’s take an example: In a virtual shop, the consumer wants to go about the aisles. A real trolley is offered to him as a behavioural interface which he will push and take through the aisles, facing the screen. In this case, the consumer will unconsciously and naturally use some of the automatic reflexes he has acquired while shopping in real shops in this virtual shop with a few sensorimotor differences. That is why we use the prefix “pseudo” to refer to this type of immersion and interaction.

The user thus uses a schema that he has adopted in the real world in his sensorimotor activity. The concept of schema is proposed by psychologist Piaget (Piaget \& Chomsky, 1979). On analysing the origin of intelligence in an infant, mainly in its sensorimotor dimension, he states that the subject uses the schemas as the means to adapt to situations and objects he comes across. We would like to draw a parallel between the way a user understands a virtual world and the way a child understands our real world. For Piaget, a schema is a structured set of characteristics of an action that can be generalised, which helps to repeat the action or apply it to new contents (as in the case of a user who operates his trolley in conditions similar to the real world).

A schema is thus the mental organisation of actions as they are transferred or are generalised while repeating this action in similar circumstances. They correspond to stabilised aspects of actions for various categories of situations. The schemas of utilisation have a personal dimension which is peculiar to each individual; they are recorded in the subject’s personal memory as resources that can be called upon. They also have a social dimension: They are common to a class or to a number of members belonging to a social group, community, a work environment, etc. This is why it is appropriate to consider them as social schemas of use, like resources registered in the collective memory of a group (Rabardel, 1995).

It is on this concept that we base our approach to obtain behavioural interfaces, offering a pseudo-natural immersion and interactivity. Behavioural interface is thus a mixed entity including both an artefact (its hardware device) and a schema, which we call “Imported Behavioural Schema” (IBS). This schema is imported from the real environment to be transferred and adapted to the virtual environment. This analysis can be compared to that of the instrument, described by Rabardel. It involves explaining the manner in which the users use the behavioural interface (or the instrument) and the manner in which their skills are developed. It also includes describing the designing process of these devices, to facilitate its consideration.

## 电子代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考|Use of schemas, metaphors or sensorimotor substitutions

In case of technical, economic or theoretical difficulties that obstruct the use of an Imported Behavioural Schema, we can get around these difficulties by using a “metaphor”. Instead of using a sensorimotor behaviour and the person’s knowledge, we offer him a symbolic image of the action or of the desired perception visually in most cases. For example, in a virtual shop, we can give the consumer the opportunity to confirm the purchase of a product simply by clicking on its image and then on an icon representing a cash box. This action becomes symbolic and no longer represents the sensorimotor action in a real shop. Here, the immersion and interaction are less pseudo-natural.

Using a metaphor may require more cognitive efforts if the metaphoric symbols are not known to the users. They need to make an effort to understand and assimilate the symbol, so that it gradually becomes a schema of use. But an Imported Behavioural Schema (IBS) itself can require certain efforts, as it must be adapted to a virtual world with a certain artefact and under the constraint of sensorimotor discrepancies. We use either a metaphor or an IBS depending on the psychological, technical and economic difficulties and the planned application. In practice, we can have a combined use of metaphors and IBS, as per the type of activities required.

In case of difficulties in using an IBS or a metaphor using the same motor senses and responses as in the real world, a metaphor with sensory substitution or a metaphor with motor substitution can also be used. For example, it is often difficult to transfer the force to the user in a force feedback interface. We can by-pass this difficulty by substituting the sense of perceiving the force by a sense of hearing. A sound is heard when the object handled by the user faces an obstacle. This sensory substitution is effective in this case if the user does not need to be warned about the obstacle. On the other hand, if the perception of intensity and the directions of forces are necessary for the application (for example, assembling parts), substituting would not be appropriate. The substitution can also be motor and not sensory: Instead of getting about by walking, the user can orally give commands to move virtually (I want to move forward, move back, turn left, turn right, etc.) with a voice-command interface and in front of a dynamic point of view of the virtual world. Here, it is a case of a metaphor with motor substitution.

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