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电子工程代写|并行计算代写Parallel Computing代考|Csci526 Enhancing Uniprocessor Performance

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电子工程代写|并行计算代写Parallel Computing代考|Enhancing Uniprocessor Performance

In this chapter, we review techniques used to enhance the performance of a uniprocessor. A multiprocessor system or a parallel computer is composed of several uniprocessors and the performance of the entire system naturally depends, among other things, on the performance of the constituent uniprocessors. We also aim, in this chapter, to differentiate the techniques used to enhance uniprocessor performance from the techniques used to enhance multiprocessor performance, which are discussed in subsequent chapters.

Traditionally, building a computer was an expensive proposal. For almost 50 years, all effort went into designing faster single computer systems. It typically takes a microprocessor manufacturer 2 years to come up with the next central processing unit (CPU) version [1]. For the sake of the following discussion, we define a simple computer or processor as consisting of the following major components:

1. controller to coordinate the activities of the various processor components;
2. datapath or arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) that does all the required arithmetic and logic operations;
3. storage registers, on-chip cache, and memory; and
4. input/output (I/O) and networking to interface and communicate with the outside world.

The above components are sometimes referred to as the computer resources. Theses resources are shared between the different programs or processes running on the computer, and the job of the computer operating system (OS) is to organize the proper sharing and access to these resources. Making a processor run faster was accomplished through many techniques to enhance the datapath since it is the heart of any processor. We discuss datapath enhancements in the following subsections.

电子工程代写|并行计算代写Parallel Computing代考|INCREASING PROCESSOR CLOCK FREQUENCY

Increasing the system clock frequency allows the computer to execute more instructions per unit time. However, logic gates need time to switch states and system buses need time to be charged or discharged through bus drivers. These delays are closely tied to the underlying silicon technology such as NMOS, CMOS, and bipolar. The type of gate circuits also dictate the clock speed, such as using CMOS or domino logic or current-mode logic. There is also a fundamental limit on how fast a chip could run based on dynamic power dissipation. Dynamic power dissipation is given approximately by
$$p_{\mathrm{d}}=C f V^2,$$
where $C$ is the total parasitic capacitance, $f$ is the clock frequency, and $V$ is the power supply voltage. Engineers developed many techniques to reduce power consumption of the chip while raising the clock frequency. One obvious solution was to reduce the value of $C$ through finer lithographic process resolution. A bigger impact resulted when the chip power supply voltage was reduced from $5.0$ to $2.2 \mathrm{~V}$ and then $1.2 \mathrm{~V}$, and the question is how much the supply voltage can keep scaling down without affecting the gate switching noise margin.

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电子工程代写|并行计算代写并行计算代考|增加处理器时钟频率

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$$p_{\mathrm{d}}=C f V^2,$$
，其中$C$为总寄生电容，$f$为时钟频率，$V$为电源电压。工程师们开发了许多技术来降低芯片的功耗，同时提高时钟频率。一个明显的解决方案是通过更精细的光刻工艺分辨率来降低$C$的值。当芯片电源电压从$5.0$降低到$2.2 \mathrm{~V}$再到$1.2 \mathrm{~V}$时，产生了更大的影响，问题是在不影响门开关噪声裕度的情况下，电源电压可以持续降低多少

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。