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# 数据科学代写|数据分析代写Data Analysis代考|DSC324 Local Moran’s I statistic

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## 数据科学代写|数据分析代写Data Analysis代考|Local Moran’s I statistic

The local Moran’s I indicator belongs to the so-called LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association) or local indicators of spatial autocorrelation proposed by Anselin (1995). It is calculated with the following formula:
$$I_i=\frac{\left(x_i-\bar{x}\right)}{S_i^2} \sum_{j=1, j \neq i}^n\left(w_{i j}\left(x_j-\bar{x}\right)\right)$$
where $n$ is the number of geographical units, $x_i$ is the value of the variable $x$ in region $i, x^{-}$is the sample mean of the variable, $x_j$ is the value of the variable $x$ in all other regions (where $j \neq i$ ), $S_i^2$ is the sample variance of the variable $x$ and $w_{i j}$ is a weight that can be defined as the inverse of the distance between the various regions. There are other ways to define $w_{i j}$, some contemplate choosing a limit distance to define the neighborhood of a given region: the regions that fall within the limit distance take on a weight equal to one, while the external regions take on a weight equal to zero.

Positive and high values of the local Moran’s I index indicate that a given region is surrounded by neighboring regions with similar high (or low) values of the variable under study. In this case, the spatial groups detected are defined as “high-high” (region with a high value surrounded by regions with high values) or “low-low” (region with low value surrounded by regions with low values). In terms of cancer risk, a “high-high” cluster would indicate a high-risk area, while a “low-low” cluster would denote a low-risk area. Negative values of the local Moran’s I reveal that the region under examination is a spatial outlier. A spatial outlier is an area that has a markedly different value from that of its neighbors (Cerioli and Riani 1999). Spatial outliers are divided into “high-low” (high value surrounded by neighbors with low values) and “low-high” (low value surrounded by neighbors with high values).

## 数据科学代写|数据分析代写Data Analysis代考|SIR geographical variation

In eastern Sicily from 2003 to $2016,7,182$ individuals were affected by TC. The etiology of this tumor is complex and varied, and can be genetic as well as preventive, come from dietary causes, etc. as already mentioned. In the case of Sicily, the distribution of TC cases could also be conditioned by two geographical components:

• the spatial arrangement of the resident population, with particular reference to the female part, which is known to be the most affected by TC (Parkin et al. 2005). Where the population is more concentrated or where the female population is predominant, it will be more likely to record a high incidence of TC;
• the presence of environmental factors such as the volcanic nature of the territory. The fumes emitted by an active volcano, such as Mount Etna, are able to transport heavy metals and radioactive substances capable of contaminating the air, water and soil of the surrounding areas (Fiore et al. 2019).

In an attempt to distinguish the effects of the two geographical components on the spatial distribution of TC cases, we propose maps of the SIR by census tract and its significant confidence intervals. SIRs were computed by dividing the population into strata based on age and sex, to reflect the variation in the risk of TC due to these two demographic variables. Therefore, a different overall risk rate was calculated for each stratum (see section 2.3.2).

## 数据科学代写数据分析代写Data Analysis代考|Local Moran’s I statistic

$$I_i=\frac{\left(x_i-\bar{x}\right)}{S_i^2} \sum_{j=1, j \neq i}^n\left(w_{i j}\left(x_j-\bar{x}\right)\right)$$

## 数据科学代写|数据分析代写Data Analysis代考|SIR geographical variation

2003 年至西西里岛东部 $2016,7,182$ 个人受到 TC 的影响。这种肿瘰的病因复杂多样，既可以是遗传性的，也可以是预防性的， 如前所述，来自饮食原因等。就西西里岛而言，TC 病例的分布也可能舜两个地理因雔的影响:

• 常住人口的空间分布，特别是女性部分，已知妎性部分受 TC 影响最大 (Parkin 等人，2005 年)。在人口较为集中或姓 人口占多数的地方，TC 发病率较高的可能性更大；
• 环境因箐的存在，例如领土的火山性质。垁特纳火山等活火山喷出的烟雾能够输送重金属和放射性物质，从而污染周围地区 的空气、水和土鿁（Fiore 等人，2019 年）。
为了区分这两个地理成分对 TC 病例空间分布的影响，我们提出了按人口普荁区划分的 SIR 地图及其显着置信区间。SIR 的计算方 法是根据年龄和性别将人口划分为多个阶层，以反映这两个人口变量导致的 TC 风险的变化。因此，为每个层计算了不同的总体风， 险率（参见第 $2.3 .2$ 节）。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。