Posted on Categories:Microeconomics, 微观经济学, 经济代写

# 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|BEA470 Normal Good

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Normal Good

Assume we have the same case as we did earlier: A consumer chooses between good 1 and good 2. Giver her income, $m$, the prices of the goods, $\mathrm{p}_{11}$ and $\mathrm{p}_2$, and her preferences, she chooses that basket of goods that maximizes her utility. In Figure 5.1, this means that she initially chooses point $\mathrm{A}$.

If the price of good 1 falls from $\mathrm{p}{11}$ to $\mathrm{p}{12}$, the budget line rotates outwards from $\mathrm{BL}1$ to $\mathrm{BL}_2$. When the consumer chooses a new basket, she ends up in point $\mathrm{B}$. Her consumption of good 1 has consequently increased from $\mathrm{q}{11}$ to $\mathrm{q}_{12}$, which is the total effect.

We now ask ourselves how much of the change in quantity from $\mathrm{q}{11}$ to $\mathrm{q}{12}$ that depends on the income effect (i.e. on the increase in purchasing power) and how much that depends on the substitution effect (i.e. on the change in the slope of the budget line). To answer this question, we first ask another question: If only the relative prices had changed, without the consumer getting any increase in utility, what effect had we then seen.

If the relative prices change, the slope of the budget line changes. All budget lines that have the same relative prices as $\mathrm{BL}2$ must also have the same slopes as that budget line. Furthermore, for the consumer to have the same utility as before, she must consume on the same indifference curve as she did before, i.e. on $\mathrm{I}_1$. We therefore construct an imaginary budget line, $\mathrm{BL}$, that has the same slope as $\mathrm{BL}_2$ and that, just as $\mathrm{BL}_1$, is a tangent to $\mathrm{I}_1$. (However, since it has a different slope than $\mathrm{BL}_1$, it must touch $\mathrm{I}_1$ at different point than that budget line does.) If this had been the real situation, the consumer would have chosen point $\mathrm{C}$. She had then increased her consumption of good 1 from $\mathrm{q}{11}$ to $\mathrm{q}_1{ }^*$. At the same time, she would have decreased her consumption of good 2 . This substitution from good 1 to good 2 depends on the change in the relative price, but it does not result in any change in the level of utility. This part is the substitution effect.

The remaining change, from $\mathrm{q}1{ }^*$ to $\mathrm{q}{12}$, is the part that depends on the increase in the consumer’s purchasing power. As she moves to a higher indifference curve, from $\mathrm{I}_1$ to $\mathrm{I}_2$, she increases her utility. This part is the income effect.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Inferior Good

The strategy to find the income- and substitution effects for an inferior good is exactly the same as for a normal good, but the result will look slightly different. As previously mentioned, an inferior good is a good one buys less of if one’s income increases. The underlying reason for that is to be found in the preferences. As one becomes wealthier, one can afford to buy something of higher quality instead. This preference will have an effect on the shape of the indifference curves.
This time, when we split up the total effect into a substitution effect and an income effect, the income effect for the inferior good is negative. The substitution effect is always positive, which means that we get two cases depending on whether the negative income effect is smaller or larger in magnitude than the always-positive substitution effect. Goods that belong to the latter case are called Giffen goods, and these are a very rare kind of goods. Their distinguishing feature is that one buys more of them if the price rises. In Section 2.1.1, we said that the demand curve almost always slopes downwards. Giffen goods are consequently an exception from that rule.

In Figure 5.2, we have almost the same situation as in 5.1. The difference is that the consumer’s indifference curve $\mathrm{I}_2$ has been changed so that it touches the budget line $\mathrm{BL}_2$ at a point between points $\mathrm{A}$ and $\mathrm{C}$. This change makes the income effect negative and the total effect is smaller than before.

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Inferior Good

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。