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经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|ECON110 The Supply Curve

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经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|The Supply Curve

The producer counterpart to the demand curve is the supply curve. It shows how large quantities the producers are willing to sell at different prices, given that other factors that can affects supply are held constant. The supply curve is typically upward sloping or horizontal (but it could also be downward sloping). The demand curve is also valid over a certain period. Later, we will distinguish between two time periods: short and long horizons.
The most important factors, beside the price, that affect supply are:

Factor prices, i.e. wages, prices of machines and compensation to owners and lenders. In other words, changes in the cost of production.

Laws and regulations that apply to the production.

Prices of other goods the firm produces or could potentially produce. Perhaps the producer is producing blue and green pens. If the price of green pens rises, she is likely to shift over resources (workers and machines) to that production and there is less left with which to produce blue pens. Consequently, the supply of blue pens decreases, even though the price of blue pens is unchanged.

The supply curve behaves in a way that is similar to that of the demand curve. Look at Figure $2.2$ and the supply curve $S_1$. If the price is $\mathrm{p}_1$, then the producers are willing to sell the quantity $\mathrm{Q}_1$ (point $\mathrm{A}$ ). If the price of the good falls to $\mathrm{p}_2$, we move along $\mathrm{S}_1$ to point $\mathrm{B}$, where the quantity is $\mathrm{Q}_2$. If, instead, some other factor changes, e.g. if wages increase so that it becomes more expensive to produce the good, the whole supply curve shifts. For instance from $\mathrm{S}_1$ to $\mathrm{S}_2$. If the price is still $\mathrm{p}_1$, then the quantity supplied changes from $Q_1$ to $Q_3$ (point C).

经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Equilibrium

A market is in equilibrium when both of these conditions are fulfilled:

1. No agent wants to change her decision or strategy.
2. The decisions of all agents are compatible with each other, so that they can all be carried out simultaneously.

If we join the supply and demand curves in one diagram, we get an equilibrium point where the two curves intersect. At this point, the price the consumers are willing to pay is the same as the price the producers demand. In Figure 2.3, the equilibrium price (market-clearing price) is $\mathrm{p}^$ and the equilibrium quantity is $\mathrm{Q}^$.

The equilibrium point has two important properties in that it is most often (but not always) stable and self-correcting. That it is stable means that, if the market is in equilibrium there is no tendency to move away from it. That it is selfcorrecting means that, if the market is not in equilibrium then there is a tendency to move towards it.

To see more clearly what this means, suppose the price is higher than in equilibrium, e.g. that it is $\mathrm{p}_2$. At that price, producers are willing to supply the quantity $\mathrm{Q}_1$ whereas the consumers are only willing to buy the quantity $\mathrm{Q}_2$. Therefore, there is an excess supply of the good. To get rid of the extra units the producers are prepared to lower the price. This will push the price downwards, closer to $\mathrm{p}^$. At $\mathrm{p}^$, there is no excess supply and the downward push on the price ends.

Then assume, instead, that the price is lower than $\mathrm{p}^$, e.g. that it is $\mathrm{p}_3$. At this price, the consumers demand the quantity $\mathrm{Q}_3$ whereas the producers are only willing to supply the quantity $\mathrm{Q}_4$. Consequently, there will be a shortage of the good, and the consumers will be prepared to bid up the price to get more units. This will tend to push the price upwards, closer to $\mathrm{p}^$ where, again, the push will end.

微观经济学代写

经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Equilibrium

1. 没有代理人想改新她的决定或策略。
2. 所有代理人的决策都是相互兼容的，因此它们可以同时执行。
如果我们将供给和需求曲线连接在一张图中，我们会得到两条曲线相交的平衡点。此时，消费者愿意支付的价格与生产者要求的价 格相同。在图 $2.3$ 中，均衡价格 (市场出清价格) 是缺少上标或下标参数 均衡数量是 缺少上标或下标参数
平衡点有两个重要的属性，因为它通常 (但不总是) 是稳定的和自我修正的。它是稳定的意味着，如果市场处于均衡状态，则没有
为了更清楚地了解这意味着什么，假设价格高于均衡价格，例双 $\mathrm{p}_2$. 以这个价格，生产商愿意供应数量 $\mathrm{Q}_1$ 而消费者只愿意购买数量 $\mathrm{Q}_2$. 因此，商品供应过剩。为了摆脱多余的单位，生产商准齿降低价格。这将推动价格向下，更接近 $\$ \backslash \mathrm{mathrm}{\mathrm{p}} \wedge . A t$| mathrm{p}^\$，没有供应过剩，价格的下行推动拮束。
然后假设价格低于缺少上标或下标参数
，例如它是 $p_3$. 以这个价格，消费者要求的数量 $Q_3$ 而生产者只 愿意提供数量 $\mathrm{Q}_4$. 因此，商品将出现短缺，消费者将准夅抬高价格以获得更多商品。这将倾向于推动价格上涨，接近
缺少上标或下标参数
再次，推动将结束。

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