Posted on Categories:Operations Research, 数学代写, 运筹学

# 数学代写|运筹学代写Operations Research代考|KMA355 CHARACTERISTICS OF GAME THEORY

avatest™

## avatest™帮您通过考试

avatest™的各个学科专家已帮了学生顺利通过达上千场考试。我们保证您快速准时完成各时长和类型的考试，包括in class、take home、online、proctor。写手整理各样的资源来或按照您学校的资料教您，创造模拟试题，提供所有的问题例子，以保证您在真实考试中取得的通过率是85%以上。如果您有即将到来的每周、季考、期中或期末考试，我们都能帮助您！

•最快12小时交付

•200+ 英语母语导师

•70分以下全额退款

## 数学代写|运筹学代写Operations Research代考|CHARACTERISTICS OF GAME THEORY

1. A game involves at least two players where a player can be an individual or a team. For instance, a game of chess has two players, whereas a game of cricket has two teams. In business, two companies compete against each other to capture more customers.
2. Strategies adopted by both players are opposing and diametrically opposite to each other. In a game, a player plays a strategy not only to fulfil his/her purpose of maximizing the gain but also to inflict maximum damage in terms of losses to the opponent.
3. Both players are rational and independent. Rationality implies that a player can comprehend strategies available and played by the other player. For instance, if a vendor tries to deceive the buyer by providing low-quality products, then vendor can comprehend the reaction of buyer that could be either acceptance or rejection of the order. In addition, selection of a particular strategy requires allocation of limited resources. A player is independent in allocating the amount of resources to various strategies depending on each strategy’s effectiveness.
4. Each player has multiple strategies at his/her disposal to fulfil the objective of maximum gain or minimum loss. As said, the selection of a particular strategy depends on the availability of resources as well as rules of game. For instance, in a game of cricket, each team cannot have more than 11 players, the game has to be finished within a stipulated time period, etc. Similarly, in a business game, if two are competing for more brand awareness, then each of them has a limited marketing budget to promote their brand by spending on different media. The purpose would be to achieve maximum brand awareness at the expense of competing brands.
5. A strategy’s effectiveness is judged by its outcome. As two players are arranged in a duel-like situation, so an outcome is always a combination of the particular strategy of two players. This outcome is termed as payoff. Thus, a payoff is directly dependent on the opponent’s action. In the case of games played only once, payoff indicates the present value of outcome. For instance, in vendor-retailer relationship, a vendor might be able to deceive a retailer by supplying low quality goods, but it would lead to termination of relationship with no future orders. On the other hand, if a game is played repeatedly, the payoff implies the present value of all current and future outcomes. A vendor to maintain a long-term relationship and indulge in repeat orders should provide (present) and keep on providing (future) good quality products. In this chapter, all explanations pertain to games played only once.
6. Every payoff is examined and compared with other payoffs by applying a method of valuation. For instance, selection of particular media for increase in brand awareness can be measured in terms of sales or increase in revenue. In politics, the number of votes generated by different media campaigns evaluates the effectiveness of those campaigns. These valuation methods are termed as utility function.

## 数学代写|运筹学代写Operations Research代考|ELEMENTS OF GAME THEORY

Following payoff matrix is helpful in understanding elements of a game.

• As shown, the above game has two players: A and B.
• Each player can play by applying any of the available multiple strategies. For instance, A has A to An and B has B1 to Bm.
• Importantly, each combination of strategies results in a payoff. For instance, if A plays A1 and B plays B1, then outcome would be $\mathrm{a}_{11}$.
• Both players are opponents, so the value of payoff indicates gain for one and loss for the other. Suppose, value of $\mathrm{a}_{11}$ is $+5$ it would indicate that by playing $\mathrm{A} 1$ and $\mathrm{B} 1 \mathrm{~A}$ has gained five units and $\mathrm{B}$ has lost the same. On the other hand, $-5$ would imply $A$ has lost five units and $B$ has gained the same. This is explained in detail in the next section with an illustration.

## 数学代写|运筹学代写Operations Research代考|CHARACTERISTICS OF GAME THEORY

1. 一场比赛至少涉及两名​​球员，其中一名球员可以是个人或团队。例如，一场国际象棋比赛有两名选手，而一场板球比赛有两支球队。在商业上，两家公司相互竞争以吸引更多的客户。
2. 双方采取的策略截然相反，截然相反。在博弈中，玩家采取策略不仅要实现他/她最大化收益的目的，而且要在对手的损失方面造成最大的伤害。
3. 两个玩家都是理性和独立的。理性意味着玩家可以理解其他玩家可用和使用的策略。例如，如果供应商试图通过提供低质量的产品来欺骗买方，那么供应商可以理解买方的反应，可能是接受订单，也可能是拒绝订单。此外，选择特定策略需要分配有限的资源。玩家根据每种策略的有效性独立地将资源量分配给各种策略。
4. 每个玩家都有多种策略供他/她使用，以实现最大收益或最小损失的目标。如前所述，特定策略的选择取决于资源的可用性以及游戏规则。例如，在板球比赛中，每队不能超过 11 名球员，比赛必须在规定的时间内完成等。同样，在商业比赛中，如果两个队争夺品牌知名度，那么每个队他们中的营销预算有限，无法通过在不同媒体上花费来推广自己的品牌。目的是以牺牲竞争品牌为代价来获得最大的品牌知名度。
5. 战略的有效性是由其结果来判断的。由于两个玩家被安排在类似决斗的情况下，所以结果总是两个玩家特定策略的组合。这种结果称为回报。因此，收益直接取决于对手的行动。对于只玩一次的游戏，收益表示结果的现值。例如，在供应商与零售商的关系中，供应商可以通过提供低质量的商品来欺骗零售商，但这会导致关系终止，没有未来的订单。另一方面，如果重复玩一个游戏，则收益意味着所有当前和未来结果的现值。供应商要保持长期关系并沉迷于重复订单，应该提供（现在）并继续提供（未来）优质产品。
6. 通过应用估值方法，检查每个收益并与其他收益进行比较。例如，选择特定媒体以提高品牌知名度可以根据销售额或收入增长来衡量。在政治上，不同媒体活动产生的选票数量评估了这些活动的有效性。这些估值方法被称为效用函数。

## 数学代写|运筹学代写Operations Research代考|ELEMENTS OF GAME THEORY

• 如图所示，上面的游戏有两个玩家：A和B。
• 每个玩家都可以通过应用任何可用的多种策略来玩。例如，A 有 A 到 An，B 有 B1 到 Bm。
• 重要的是，每种策略组合都会带来回报。例如，如果 A 玩 A1，B 玩 B1，那么结果将是一个11.
• 双方都是对手，因此支付的值表示一个人的收益和另一个人的损失。假设，值一个11是+5这将表明通过播放一个1和乙1 一个已经获得了五个单位和乙已经失去了一样。另一方面，−5会暗示一个失去了五个单位，并且乙获得了相同的。这将在下一节中用插图详细解释。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。