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会计代写|金融会计代考Financial Accounting代写|ACCT1101 Different classes of owners

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会计代写|金融会计代考Financial Accounting代写|Different classes of owners

The above discussions also assume that all shareholders are identical. However, there may be several classes of share, and each class of shareholder will then have its own viewpoint on the performance of the business. For example, suppose now that the share capital of Bread Co. remains the same in total (see Figures $7.2$ and $7.3$ ) but includes $10,000 € 1$ preference shares, each bearing a fixed 10 per cent dividend entitlement, the ordinary share capital then being 60,000 and 66,000 at the ends of $20 \mathrm{X} 1$ and $20 \mathrm{X} 2$ respectively. The ROE (and ROCE) will be the same as previously shown. As a reminder, the ROE, taking before-tax figures to ease comparison, was:
\begin{aligned} 20 \times 1: \frac{12}{94} & =12.8 \text { per cent } \ 20 \times 2: \frac{22}{106} & =20.8 \text { per cent } \end{aligned}
However, it is also possible to calculate the return on ordinary owners’ equity (ROOE). For this, the preference share capital must be deducted from the denominator, and the preference shareholders’ dividend return must be deducted from the numerator. So, we have:
\begin{aligned} & \text { ROOE in } 20 \times 1=\left(\frac{12-1}{94-10}\right)=\frac{11}{84}=13.1 \text { per cent } \ & \text { ROOE in } 20 \times 2=\left(\frac{22-1}{106-10}\right)=\frac{21}{96}=21.9 \text { per cent } \end{aligned}
This leads to a more complete set of data, as shown in Table 7.5.

The effect on the ordinary shareholders of adding a tranche of preference shareholders, with a lower dividend, is similar to the gearing effect on all shareholders together of adding a tranche of debentures with a lower interest rate. Again, this is only an advantage to the ordinary shareholders when profits exceed a certain level.

会计代写|金融会计代考Financial Accounting代写|Liquidity ratios

This section explores some ratios related to the liquidity (i.e. cash or near-cash position) of a business. A number of ratios can be calculated that compare short-term assets with short-term liabilities. Each ratio uses a different interpretation of just how short term the assets or liabilities should be. The shorter the term considered, the more prudent, pessimistic or safe is the approach adopted. Each ratio in this section shows the extent to which the particular definition of ‘short-term assets’ chosen would allow the repayment of the short-term liabilities in existence at that date. They all assume that the assets concerned will turn into cash at their balance sheet values.
Three common ratios are:

1. Cash ratio $=\frac{\text { Cash }+\text { Marketable securities }}{\text { Current liabilities }}$
2. Acid test (or quick assets) ratio $=\frac{\text { Current assets }-\text { Inventory }}{\text { Current liabilities }}$
3. Current (or working capital ) ratio $=\frac{\text { Current assets }}{\text { Current liabilities }}$

会计代写|金融会计代考Financial Accounting代写|Different classes of owners

Bread Co. 的总股本保持不变 (见图7.2和 $7.3$ ) 但包括数学输入错误 优先股，每股夹有固定的 $10 \%$ 的股息权利，普通股泾本 在年底分别为 60,000 股和 66,000 股 $20 \mathrm{X} 1$ 和 $20 \mathrm{X} 2$ 分别。ROE（和 ROCE）将与之前显示的相同。提醒一下，为了便于比较， 采用税前数据的 ROE 是:
$$20 \times 1: \frac{12}{94}=12.8 \text { per cent } 20 \times 2: \frac{22}{106} \quad=20.8 \text { per cent }$$

ROOE in $20 \times 1=\left(\frac{12-1}{94-10}\right)=\frac{11}{84}=13.1$ per cent $\quad$ ROOE in $20 \times 2=\left(\frac{22-1}{106-10}\right)=\frac{21}{96}=21.9$ per cent

会计代写|金融会计代考Financial Accounting代写|Liquidity ratios

1. 现金比率 $=\frac{\text { Cash }+\text { Marketable securities }}{\text { Current liabilities }}$
2. 酸性测试（或快速格产) 比率 $=\frac{\text { Current assets – Inventory }}{\text { Current liabilities }}$
3. 当前 (或荣运诏金) 比率 $=\frac{\text { Current assets }}{\text { Current liabilities }}$

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。