Posted on Categories:Game theory , 博弈论, 经济代写

# 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|ECON3050 Alice Conflict and cooperation

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## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Conflict and cooperation

Most of the games in this book have only two players, called Alice and Bob. The first game they will play is Matching Pennies.

Sherlock Holmes and the evil Professor Moriarty played Matching Pennies on the way to their final confrontation at the Reichenbach Falls. Holmes had to decide at which station to get off a train. Moriarty had to decide at which station to lie in wait. A real-life counterpart is played by dishonest accountants and their auditors. The former decide when to cheat and the latter decide when to inspect the books.

In our toy version, Alice and Bob each show a coin. Alice wins if both coins show the same face. Bob wins if they show different faces. Alice and Bob therefore each have two strategies, heads and tails. Figure 1 shows who wins and loses for all possible strategy combinations. These outcomes are the players’ payoffs in the game. The thumbs-up and thumbs-down icons have been used to emphasize that payoffs needn’t be measured in money.
Figure 2 shows how all the information in Figure 1 can be assembled into a payoff table, with Alice’s payoff in the southwest corner of each cell, and Bob’s in the northeast corner. It also shows a two-player version of the very different Driving Game that we play every morning when we get into our cars to drive to work. Alice and Bob again have two pure strategies, left and right, but now the players’ payoffs are totally aligned instead of being diametrically opposed. When journalists talk about a win-win situation, they have something like the Driving Game in mind.

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Von Neumann

The first result in game theory was John Von Neumann’s minimax theorem, which applies only to games like Matching Pennies in which the players are modelled as implacable enemies. One sometimes still reads dismissive commentaries on game theory in which Von Neumann is caricatured as the archetypal cold warrior – the original for Dr Strangelove in the well known movie. We are then told that only a crazed military strategist would think of applying game theory in real life, because only a madman or a cyborg would make the mistake of supposing that the world is a game of pure conflict.

Von Neumann was an all-round genius. Inventing game theory was just a sideline for him. It is true that he was a hawk in the Cold War, but far from being a mad cyborg, he was a genial soul, who liked to party and have a good time. Just like you and me, he preferred cooperation to conflict, but he also understood that the way to achieve cooperation isn’t to pretend that people can’t sometimes profit by causing trouble.
Cooperation and conflict are two sides of the same coin, neither of which can be understood properly without taking account of the other. To consider a game of pure conflict like Matching Pennies isn’t to claim that all human interaction is competitive. Nor is one claiming that all human interaction is cooperative when one looks at a game of pure coordination like the Driving Game. One is simply distinguishing two different aspects of human behaviour so that they can be studied one at a time.

# 博弈论代写

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|冯-诺伊曼

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## MATLAB代写

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