Posted on Categories:Game theory , 博弈论, 经济代写

# 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|ECON90022 Tit-for-tat

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## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Tit-for-tat

Most social scientists think that everything they need to know about reciprocity is summarized in the strategy TIT-FOR-TAT for the indefinitely repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma. It tells a player to begin by playing dove and then to copy whatever the other player did last time. It is a Nash equilibrium if both Alice and Bob play TIT-FOR-TAT just as it is a Nash equilibrium if they both play GRIM, but TIT-FOR-TAT doesn’t punish a deviation relentlessly. Repentant sinners are forgiven after they return to the fold by playing dove again.
The popularity of TIT-FOR-TAT derives from Bob Axelrod’s Olympiad, in which social scientists were invited to submit computer programs to be matched against each other in the indefinitely repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma. After learning the outcome of a pilot round, the contestants submitted programs that implemented 63 of the infinite number of possible strategies for the game.

The most successful strategy in the competition was TIT-FOR-TAT. So Axelrod continued by simulating the effect of evolution operating on all 63 strategies. The fact that TIT-FOR-TAT was the most numerous of all the surviving programs at the end of the evolutionary simulation clinched the question for Axelrod, who then proceeded to propose TIT-FOR-TAT as a suitable paradigm for human cooperation across the board. In describing its virtues, he says:
What accounts for TIT-FOR-TAT’s robust success is its combination of being nice, retaliatory, forgiving and clear. Its niceness prevents it from getting into unnecessary trouble. Its retaliation discourages the other side from persisting whenever defection is tried. Its forgiveness helps restore mutual cooperation. And its clarity makes it intelligible to the other player, thereby eliciting long-term cooperation.

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Emergent phenomena

Game theory models of social relationships are sometimes criticized as reductionist because they make no reference to notions like authority, blame, courtesy, duty, envy, friendship, guilt, honour, integrity, justice, loyalty, modesty, ownership, pride, reputation, status, trust, virtue, and the like. The inference is that game theory is an inhuman discipline which treats people like robots.
It is true that – like all successful sciences – game theory is reductive, but it doesn’t follow that game theorists think that concepts like authority or duty are irrelevant to human behaviour. On the contrary, we believe that such notions are emergent phenomena that arise when people try to make sense of the equilibria they find themselves playing in the game of life.
For example, the folk explanation of the equilibrium in which Alice always delivers and Bob always pays in the Trust Minigame is that Bob can’t afford to lose his reputation for honesty by cheating on Alice, because she will then refuse to provide any service to him in the future. In practice, Bob will usually be someone new, but the same equilibrium works just as well, because nobody will be any more ready than Alice to trade with someone with a reputation for not paying.
Far from denying such stories, game theory offers a nuts-and-bolts explanation of why they sometimes work – and why they sometimes fail. For example, our critics say that we are wrong about the Trust Minigame, because people still pay up, even in one-shot games in which their reputation for honesty is irrelevant. But I notice that filling stations increasingly make you pay in advance for your petrol, presumably because they have experienced the subgame-perfect equilibrium in the one-shot Trust Minigame too often to be willing to play that game any more.

# 博弈论代写

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Tit-for-tat

TIT-FOR-TAT 的流行源于 Bob Axelrod 的奥林匹克运动会，其中邀请社会科学家提交计算机程序，以便在无限重复的囚徒困境中相互匹配。在了解了试点回合的结果后，参赛者提交的程序实施了 63 种可能的游戏策略。

“一报还一报”之所以取得巨大成功，是因为它结合了友善、报复、宽容和清晰。它的善良避免了它陷入不必要的麻烦。它的报复阻止了对方在尝试叛逃时坚持不懈。它的宽恕有助于恢复相互合作。而且它的清晰度使其他玩家可以理解，从而引发长期合作。

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Emergent phenomena

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。