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# 数学代写|数学建模代写Mathematical Modeling代考|MATH4413 The Conative Domain

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## 数学代写|数学建模代写Mathematical Modeling代考|Description and Discussion

Psychologists sometimes, but not always, distinguish conation (or volition) as a component of human mental activity that parallels cognition and affect. Conation refers to the dimension (or domain) of human needs and drives, desires and goals, choices, intentionality, and “will” – that is, the “why” behind human behavior (e.g., Snow et al. 1996 and references therein). It thus extends naturally to include a person’s planning, constructing, and/or organizing ways to meet her needs, achieve her goals, fulfill her desires, etc. “Subcomponents” of conation have been identified as (for example) direction, energizing, and persistence (e.g., Huitt 1999). Human mental activity can be regarded as involving complex and dynamic interactions among conation, cognition, and affect.

The discussion here comes from the perspective of a mathematics educator, not an educational psychologist. Many of the ideas mentioned have been well known for some time, especially in the psychology of personality, and I necessarily omit much that is important to the study of conation and motivation. My main purpose is to highlight the importance and potential value to mathematics educators of giving serious attention to and elaborating on the conative dimension in fostering students’ mathematical engagement. A second purpose is to outline a preliminary model that may be of use to mathematics educators and researchers in mathematics education. In the considerable work on motivation in theoretical or empirical studies of mathematics teaching and learning, an explicit focus on conation (e.g., TaitMcCutcheon 2008) has in fact been relatively rare. Instead, the conative dimension is usually treated rather tacitly, with motivation most frequently studied by focusing on its cognitive, metacognitive, and affective aspects (e.g., Hannula 2006; Jansen and Middleton 2011; Middleton et al. 2017 and extensive references therein).

## 数学代写|数学建模代写Mathematical Modeling代考|Distinguishing Conation from Affect

To understand the value of this distinction, I think it is useful to begin with the idea of conative feelings, which I take to be subjective sensations that may be termed wants. These are not typically included in proposed taxonomies of fundamental emotions.

Thus, “basic” emotions are often taken to include joy, sadness, surprise, anger, fear, and disgust. More complex emotional feelings particularly important to mathematical activity, such as anxiety, boredom, hatred, frustration, satisfaction, disappointment, or pride, are (at least in principle) related to the more basic emotions occurring in combination in particular situations. Affective constructs such as attitudes, beliefs, and values in relation to mathematics certainly do involve strong emotional components (Goldin 2014; Hannula 2006; McLeod 1992, 1994; Pekrun and Linnenbrink-Garcia 2014 and references therein).

However, emotional feelings are quite different from conative sensations of need or desire. These include such “basic” feelings as hunger, thirst, sleepiness, weariness, sexual desire or attraction, physical discomfort, or the desire to touch or be touched; and more complex feelings such as the desire to dominate or submit to domination, to be intimate, to belong or to be accepted, to communicate, to inspire, to know and understand, and so forth. Note too that we often use sensations of physical need as metaphors for sensations of higher needs: One may be said to “hunger” for companionship, to “hunger” or “thirst” for knowledge, or to have a “passion” for mathematics. And apart from such metaphorical usages (which may provide some hints as to underlying conative structure), I would conjecture here that such conative feelings connect strongly with mathematical motivation and engagement in ways that remain to be fully studied.

Explicit consideration of conation allows us to explore the sources of student engagement in conative constructs: to address deeply the question of why what the student is doing matters (or does not matter) to him or her. Thus:

• I would like to set aside the conjecture (often tacitly assumed) that in-the-moment goal formation and persistence is explained fully by anticipation of success, or by the positive emotions that will result from goal attainment – i.e., the conjecture that goals have an affective origin or can be fully understood through anticipated consequential affect.
• I would like to replace this by the conjecture that every in-the-moment goal has a conative origin, distinct from affect and cognition. Thus, the goal may be framed and strategized cognitively, and affect may occur in anticipation of or as a consequence of the goal’s being attained or not, or the degree of progress toward the goal; but neither cognition nor affect is itself the source of the goal.

## 数学代写|数学建模代写Mathematical Modeling代考|Distinguishing Conation from Affect

• 我想抛开这样一种猜想（通常是默认的），即当下目标的形成和坚持完全可以通过对成功的预期，或者通过目标实现所产生的积极情绪来解释——即，目标具有的猜想情感起源或可以通过预期的后果影响得到充分理解。
• 我想用每个即时目标都有一个意动起源的猜想来代替它，这与情感和认知不同。因此，目标可能是认知上的框架和策略，情感可能发生在预期或作为目标是否实现的结果，或者是朝着目标的进展程度；但认知和情感本身都不是目标的源泉。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。