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# 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|BEA470 Ways to Reduce Market Power

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Ways to Reduce Market Power

To reduce the negative impact on society, governments often try to limit the market power of monopolists. Some popular measures include

• Price regulations. If it can be known what the market price would have been under perfect competition, or if the cost of production is known, the government can decide on a price ceiling at that price. Thereby, the equilibrium point is moved to the optimal point from society’s viewpoint. It is, however, very difficult to estimate the optimal price.
• Increase competition. If the monopoly has been created through political decisions, the regulation can be changed.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|First Degree Price Discrimination

Remember that the demand curve corresponds to the consumers’ valuation of different quantities of the good. Suppose, for example, that we have four presumptive consumers who want to buy a maximum of one unit of the good. The first is willing to pay 4 for one unit of the good, the others 3, 2, and 1 , respectively. We then get a demand curve as $D$ in Figure 12.1: If the price is 4, we sell one unit to the first customer, if it is 3 we sell one unit to each of the first two, and so on. We have indicated the reservation prices of each customer with a star and then joint them with a straight line.

Furthermore, assume that the monopolist has a constant marginal cost, $\mathrm{MC}=2$, and no fixed cost. Then $\mathrm{AVC}=\mathrm{ATC}=\mathrm{MC}$. In a perfectly competitive market, the equilibrium price would have been $\mathrm{p}^=2$ and the quantity sold would have been $\mathrm{Q}^=3$. The firm’s revenue would have been $3^* 2=6\left(\mathrm{Q}^* \mathrm{p}\right)$, and its cost $3^* 2=6\left(\mathrm{Q}^* \mathrm{ATC}\right)$. Its profit would therefore have been zero. The consumer surplus (CS) would have been the sum of each customer’s surplus, i.e. the difference between his or her valuation and how much he or she pays. For the first customer, the surplus is $4-2=2$, for the second $3-2=1$, and for the third $2-2=0$. Therefore, we get a total consumer surplus of $\mathrm{CS}=3$. (Compare to Chapter 10.)

In a monopoly market of the type we analyzed in Chapter 11 , the firm would have found the quantity at which $\mathrm{MC}=\mathrm{MR}$, i.e. $\mathrm{Q}=1.5$. If it can only sell whole units, it would have chosen to produce only one unit that it would have sold at a price of 4 . The profit (= PS) would then be $1^*(4-2)=2$, which is higher than in the perfectly competitive case. CS would be $4-4=0$.

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|First Degree Price Discrimination

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。