Posted on Categories:Game theory , 博弈论, 经济代写

# 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|ECO467 Repeated Games

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## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Repeated Games

In fisheries, as in many other human activities, the interactions between and among agents are repeated through time. For instance, in the harvest of internationally shared fish stocks, countries usually negotiate every year the total allowable catch. Repeated games are a class of dynamic games designed to capture the long-term interaction between players and explain aspects such as cooperation, threats and punishment (Osborne and Rubinstein 2016).
A repeated game consists of a “base game” or “stage game”, which is repeated either a finite or infinite number of times (Maschler et al. 2013).
In a repeated game, the strategy of each player in a given period will depend on the past actions of the other players. This may generate equilibrium outcomes, which would not occur if the game would be played only once (Fudenberg and Tirole 1991). For instance, take the Prisoner’s Dilemma game illustrated in Chap. 2, Fig. 2.3, in which the Nash equilibrium is non-cooperation by both players: $(\mathrm{NC}, \mathrm{NC})$. If the game is played repeatedly, then one possible strategy is: “cooperate whilst the other player cooperate; if the other player plays non-cooperate then play non-cooperate in every subsequent period”. It can be shown that through this strategy the desirable outcome, both players cooperating $(\mathrm{C}, \mathrm{C})$, can be supported as a subgame perfect equilibrium of an infinitely repeated game, if the discount rate is sufficiently close to 0 , that is, when players give a sufficiently high importance to future payoffs.

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Fish War Games

Conflicts about fishing rights have been analysed through a branch of dynamic games, often called fish war games. It is a branch of literature that extends the discussion of dynamic games presented in Chaps. 3 and 4. This branch of literature evolved based on a dynamic Cournot-Nash model developed by Levhari and Mirman (1980). They introduced a discrete-time non-linear two-player game model with a dynamic externality. Their model has the feature of incorporating both a dynamic and a strategic aspect into in a Cournot-Nash model, and they developed a widely used and cited class of dynamic games using dynamic programming solution principles. The model introduces utility maximizing players acting like Cournot agents in a dynamic duopoly problem. As an add-on, there may be a change in the size of the fish population over time which forms the standard state constraint on the fishery. The model and in particular the objective function is different from the ones presented in Chaps. 3 and 4 since agents are assumed to be utility maximizers. Hence, players derive utility from catches and the cost side of harvesting is implicitly incorporated in the utility. ${ }^3$ They find, since it is utility that is maximized, that the Cournot-Nash policies imply a greater harvest of fish, and, therefore, a smaller steady state, compared to the models presented in Chaps. 3 and $4 .^4$

Fischer and Mirman (1992) present a two-country model with each country fishing and consuming different species of fish, incorporating a biological externality in the interaction between the two species. Assuming that countries only consume one species eliminates the dynamic externality, according to which countries compete for the fish, and allows us to isolate the biological externality, the so-called interspecies interaction. The model is solved for an example and based on the case with negative interaction between species there is less fishing under non-cooperation compared to cooperation.

# 博弈论代写

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|Fish War Games

Fischer 和 Mirman（1992 年）提出了一个两国模型，每个国家都捕捞和消费不同种类的鱼，并在两个物种之间的相互作用中纳入了生物外部性。假设国家只消费一种物种消除了动态外部性，据此国家争夺鱼类，并允许我们隔离生物外部性，即所谓的种间相互作用。该模型作为一个例子被求解，基于物种间负相互作用的情况，与合作相比，非合作下的捕捞量更少。

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。