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# 经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|Real and Nominal GDP

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## 经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|Real and Nominal GDP

In Chapter 19 ㅁ, we distinguished between real and nominal measures of aggregate output. When we add up dollar values of outputs, expenditures, or incomes, we end up with what are called nominal values. Nominal GDP increased by 209.5 percent between 1990 and 2017. If we want to compare real GDP in 2017 to that in 1990, we need to determine how much of that nominal increase was due to increases in prices and how much was due to increases in quantities produced. Although there are many possible ways of doing this, the underlying principle is always the same: The value of output in each period is computed by using a common set of base-period prices. When this is done, economists say that real output is measured in constant dollars.

Total GDP valued at current prices is called nominal GDP. GDP valued at base-period prices is called real GDP.

Any change in nominal GDP reflects the combined effects of changes in quantities and changes in prices. However, when real income is measured over different periods by using a common set of base-period prices, changes in real income reflect only changes in quantities. Figure 20-2 ㅁ shows the growth of real and nominal since 1985 . Note that nominal GDP grows faster over the period because both prices and quantities are increasing. Real GDP, in contrast, grows more slowly because the effect of increasing prices has been removed; we are thus able to see the growth in GDP due solely to increases in the underlying quantities. Nominal and real GDP are the same in 2007, which is the base year for the data in Figure 20-2.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|The GDP Deflator

If nominal and real GDP change by different amounts over a given time period, then prices must have changed over that period. For example, if nominal GDP has increased by 6 percent and real GDP has increased by only 4 percent over the same period, we know that average prices must have increased by 2 percent. Comparing what has happened to nominal and real GDP over the same period implies the existence of a price index measuring the change in prices over that period. We say “implies” because no explicit price index is used in calculating either real or nominal GDP. However, an index can be inferred by comparing these two values. The GDP deflator is defined as follows:
$$\text { GDP deflator }=\frac{\text { GDP at current prices }}{\text { GDP at base-period prices }} \times 100=\frac{\text { Nominal GDP }}{\text { Real GDP }} \times 100$$
The GDP deflator $\triangle$ is the most comprehensive available index of the price level because it includes all the goods and services that are produced by the entire economy. It uses the current year’s basket of production to compare the current year’s prices with those prevailing in the base period. (Because it uses the current basket of goods and services, it does not run into the CPI’s problem of sometimes being based on an out-of-date basket.) The GDP deflator was 15.6 percent higher in 2017 than in the base year 2007 (see Figure 20-2 口口). Thus, for those goods and services produced in 2017, their average price increased by 15.6 percent over the previous 10 years. Applying Economic Concepts 20-2 口 illustrates the calculation of real and nominal GDP and the GDP deflator for a simple hypothetical economy that produces only wheat and steel.

As we have said, a change in nominal GDP can be split into the change of prices and the change of quantities. For example, from the data in Figure 20-2迦 we can calculate that in 2017, Canadian nominal GDP was 209.5 percent higher than in 1990 . This increase was due to a 66.8 percent increase in prices (as calculated by the percentage change in the GDP deflator) and a 85.6 percent increase in real GDP.

# 宏观经济学代写

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|The GDP Deflator

$$\text { GDP deflator }=\frac{\text { GDP at current prices }}{\text { GDP at base-period prices }} \times 100=\frac{\text { Nominal GDP }}{\text { Real GDP }} \times 100$$

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。