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经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Rising Female Participation Rates

如果你也在 怎样代写劳动经济学Labor Economics 这个学科遇到相关的难题,请随时右上角联系我们的24/7代写客服。劳动经济学Labor Economics或称劳工经济学,旨在了解雇佣劳动市场的运作和动态。劳动是一种商品,由劳动者提供,通常是为了换取有要求的公司支付的工资。由于这些劳动者是作为社会、制度或政治体系的一部分而存在的,因此劳动经济学也必须考虑到社会、文化和政治变量。

劳动经济学Labor Economics就业市场是通过工人和雇主的互动来运作的。劳动经济学关注劳动服务的提供者(工人)和劳动服务的需求者(雇主),并试图理解由此产生的工资、就业和收入模式。这些模式之所以存在,是因为市场上的每个人都被认为是根据他们所知道的关于工资、提供劳动的愿望和休闲的愿望做出理性的选择。劳动力市场通常是有地理界限的,但互联网的兴起在某些部门带来了一个 “全球劳动力市场”。

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经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Rising Female Participation Rates

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Rising Female Participation Rates

Figure 3.5 portrays the participation rates of females by age groups. The participation rates of all female age groups have increased over the 69 years shown, with a recent slowing. We observe particularly pronounced increases for the two younger age groups.

Most of the increase in female participation rates shown in Figure 3.5 has been accounted for by married women. For example, the total number of females in the labor force increased by approximately 58 million over the 1950-2019 period. Of this total increase, about two-thirds were married women. In one sense, this is a surprising phenomenon. From the perspective of a household, one might have expected that the participation rate of married women would have declined since World War II as a consequence of the generally rising real wage rates and incomes of married males. And indeed, cross-sectional (point-in-time) studies reveal that the participation rates of married women do in fact vary inversely with their husbands’ income. Our analysis in Chapter 2 suggests the reason: If leisure is a normal good, then a household will purchase more leisure as its income rises. Historically, this purchase of leisure was likely to be in the form of the wife’s nonparticipation in the labor market. In terms of Figure 2.8, as the husband’s income rises, an expanding intrahousehold transfer of income is available to the wife, and the consequent income effect induces her to be a nonparticipant. This line of reasoning suggests that wives in lower income families are likely to work in the labor market because of economic necessity; but as the husband’s income increases, more families will enjoy the luxury of having the wife produce commodities at home.

Economists have cited several possible reasons for the rapid rise in women’s labor force participation.

How can this reasoning be reconciled with the evidence that the participation rates of married women have actually increased over time? The answer lies partly in the fact that cross-sectional studies do not have a time dimension and therefore ignore or hold constant certain variables other than the husband’s income that might have an impact on a wife’s decision to participate in the labor force. That is, a number of factors besides husbands’ rising incomes have been influencing the participation rates of married women over time. These other factors have so strongly influenced women to enter the labor market that they have overwhelmed the negative effect on labor market work of the generally rising incomes of husbands. Also, during the past three decades, the real income growth of many husbands has slowed or even ceased.

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Rising Real Wage Rates for Women

There has been a long-run increase in the real wage rates that women can earn in the labor market. This is primarily a consequence of women having acquired more skills through education. As already noted, higher wage rates generate both income and substitution effects within the framework of Becker’s model. While the income effect reduces hours of work, the substitution effects related to both production- and consumptionrelated activities within the home tend to increase them. Goods will be substituted for time in the production of commodities and goods-intensive commodities will be substituted for time-intensive goods in the household’s mix of consumer commodities. Both adjustments free the wife’s time from household activities so that she may spend more time in the labor market. Presumably the substitution effect has dominated the income effect for many women, causing their participation rates to rise. The income effect for married women may be small because its size varies directly with the amount of time they are already devoting to labor market work. In the extreme, the income effect of a rise in wage rates is zero for a married woman who is not currently participating in labor market work. A wage rate increase increases a person’s income only if the individual is currently providing hours of labor market work.

Changing Preferences and Attitudes
Rising female participation rates may also result from a fundamental change in female preferences in favor of labor market work. First, the feminist movement of the 1960s may have altered the career objectives of women toward labor market participation. Similarly, antidiscrimination legislation of the 1960s-which specifies equal pay for equal work and presumably has made “men’s jobs” more accessible-also may have made labor market work more attractive compared to work in the home. Furthermore, aside from its positive impact on wage rates, greater education for women may have enhanced their tastes or preferences for labor market careers. More generally, society’s attitudes about work have changed greatly. In the 1920s and 1930s, there was general disapproval of married women working outside the home. A man would lose status and be regarded as a “poor provider” if his wife was “forced” to take a job. But in the post-World War II period, an attitudinal turnabout emerged: Labor force participation by married women is now widely condoned and encouraged.

Reference to Figure 2.8 is helpful in distinguishing between how higher wage rates on the one hand and changing preferences on the other affect female participation rates. The availability of higher wage rates increases the slope of the budget line, which-given preferences-encourages labor market participation. Similarly, given the wage rates, a change in preferences favorable to market work makes the indifference curves flatter, which is also conducive to participation.

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Rising Female Participation Rates


经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Rising Female Participation Rates

图 3.5 描绘了按年龄组划分的女性参与率。在显示的 69 年中,所有女性年龄组的参与率都有所上升,但最近有所放缓。我们观察到两个较年轻的年龄组的增长特别明显。

图 3.5 中显示的女性参与率的增长大部分是由已婚妇女造成的。例如,在 1950 年至 2019 年期间,劳动力中的女性总人数增加了约 5800 万。在这一增加的总人数中,约三分之二是已婚妇女。从某种意义上说,这是一个令人惊讶的现象。从家庭的角度来看,人们可能会认为,由于已婚男性的实际工资率和收入普遍上升,二战后已婚女性的参与率会有所下降。事实上,横断面(时间点)研究表明,已婚妇女的参与率确实与其丈夫的收入成反比。我们在第 2 章中的分析表明了原因:如果休闲是一种正常商品,那么随着收入的增加,一个家庭会购买更多的闲暇时间。从历史上看,这种对闲暇的购买很可能是以妻子不参与劳动力市场的形式出现的。如图 2.8 所示,随着丈夫收入的增加,妻子可以获得不断扩大的家庭内部收入转移,随之而来的收入效应导致她成为非参与者。这种推理表明,低收入家庭的妻子可能出于经济需要而在劳动力市场工作;但随着丈夫收入的增加,更多的家庭将享受到妻子在家生产商品的奢侈。妻子可以获得不断扩大的家庭内部收入转移,随之而来的收入效应导致她成为非参与者。这种推理表明,低收入家庭的妻子可能出于经济需要而在劳动力市场工作;但随着丈夫收入的增加,更多的家庭将享受到妻子在家生产商品的奢侈。妻子可以获得不断扩大的家庭内部收入转移,随之而来的收入效应导致她成为非参与者。这种推理表明,低收入家庭的妻子可能出于经济需要而在劳动力市场工作;但随着丈夫收入的增加,更多的家庭将享受到妻子在家生产商品的奢侈。



经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Rising Real Wage Rates for Women


女性参与率的上升也可能是由于女性偏好发生根本性变化,有利于劳动力市场工作。首先,1960 年代的女权运动可能改变了女性的职业目标,转向参与劳动力市场。同样,1960 年代的反歧视立法——规定同工同酬并可能使“男性工作”更容易获得——也可能使劳动力市场工作比在家工作更具吸引力。此外,除了对工资率产生积极影响外,女性接受更多教育可能会增强她们对劳动力市场职业的品味或偏好。更普遍地说,社会对工作的态度发生了很大变化。在 20 年代和 30 年代,人们普遍反对已婚妇女外出工作。如果妻子“被迫”工作,男人将失去地位并被视为“贫穷的养家糊口”。但在二战后时期,态度发生了转变:已婚妇女参与劳动力现在受到广泛宽恕和鼓励。

参考图 2.8 有助于区分较高的工资率和另一方面不断变化的偏好如何影响女性参与率。更高工资率的可用性增加了预算线的斜率,这在给定偏好的情况下会鼓励劳动力市场参与。同样,在给定工资率的情况下,有利于市场工作的偏好变化会使无差异曲线更平坦,这也有利于参与。

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考

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