Posted on Categories:Game theory , 博弈论, 经济代写

经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|The Standard Bargaining Solution

avatest™帮您通过考试

avatest™的各个学科专家已帮了学生顺利通过达上千场考试。我们保证您快速准时完成各时长和类型的考试，包括in class、take home、online、proctor。写手整理各样的资源来或按照您学校的资料教您，创造模拟试题，提供所有的问题例子，以保证您在真实考试中取得的通过率是85%以上。如果您有即将到来的每周、季考、期中或期末考试，我们都能帮助您！

•最快12小时交付

•200+ 英语母语导师

•70分以下全额退款

经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|The Standard Bargaining Solution

Terms such as “efficiency” and “bargaining power” are sometimes useful in discussion of how bargaining problems are resolved. For example, we may say that a particular player is expected to obtain most of the surplus because she has a lot of bargaining power. Or we may say that players are generally expected to bargain efficiently. We can explore these notions by studying their noncooperative foundations-that is, by examining how they are related to the specific bargaining game that is played. You will be happy to know, in fact, that noncooperative analysis of bargaining is the topic of Chapter 19. At this point, however, I want you to see how bargaining power and efficiency are defined by using the abstract representation of bargaining problems just presented.

Efficiency is an important criterion with which to judge the outcome of a negotiation process. As already noted, in settings with transferable utility, an outcome is efficient if and only if it maximizes the players’ joint value. Thus, it is easy to determine which outcomes are efficient-simply find the value(s) of $x$ that yields the largest sum $v_1(x)+v_2(x)$. Let us denote by $v^$ the maximized joint value for any given bargaining game. ${ }^5$ As an example, recall that in the bargaining problem faced by Jerry and Rosemary, the parties’ joint value is maximized by employing Jerry and having him coach softball in addition to teaching drama $(x=1)$; thus, $v^=52,000$. In general, efficiency is an attractive property and, on normative grounds, you would advise players to achieve it. On the positive side, however, you might doubt whether people actually realize efficient outcomes in some cases.

Bargaining power is associated with how players divide the value of their contract. To assess the scope of bargaining power, first recall that each player can unilaterally induce the default outcome by refusing to reach an agreement. Thus, no rational player would accept an agreement that gives her less than her default payoff. As a result, the players really do not negotiate over $v^$; they negotiate over the surplus $v^-d_1-d_2$. In the job-negotiation example, Jerry will not accept an agreement that gives him less than 15,000 , and Rosemary will not accept an agreement yielding her less than 10,000 . Therefore, they actually negotiate over the difference between the maximized joint value and the default joint value, which is $52,000-25,000=27,000$.

经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|A Note About Legal Default Rules

The standard bargaining solution can be used to make a simple point about different paths to efficient outcomes-a point associated with Nobel laureate Ronald Coase. The idea is typically referred to as “the Coase theorem” even though it is informal and imprecise. I’ll illustrate the point by recounting a story along the lines of one that Coase discussed. 7

Suppose that a cattle rancher and a corn farmer own and operate adjacent parcels of land. Currently there is no fence between the ranch and the farm, so the rancher’s cattle can freely enter the farmer’s field and destroy some of his corn. This results in a loss of 300 to the farmer each month. Suppose that the value of production for the rancher is 1000 per month, and the value of production for the farmer is 500 per month (factoring in the loss of 300 ).

A fence that will keep the cattle out of the cornfield would cost 100 per month to build and maintain. For simplicity, assume that only the rancher can build and maintain the fence. Note that without a fence, the joint value for the rancher and the farmer is 1500 per month. However, the joint value would be higher with the fence in place. The fence has a cost of 100 but yields an increase of 300 in the farmer’s value of production, owing to the farmer avoiding the loss of corn each month. The joint value with the fence is 1700 . Therefore, it is socially optimal for the fence to be built and maintained.

A legal question pertaining to situations like this is the following: What sort of legal rule or regulation is indicated here to ensure an efficient outcome? One option is to have a rule that the farmer has the right to use his land without interference, so that any infringement by the rancher’s cattle would be severely punished. An alternative rule is to give the rancher the right to let her cattle roam across land boundaries, so that cattle grazing on the farm would not be punished by law. Coase’s answer is that it does not matter which legal rule is adopted. The key, he argued, is that some sort of property right is established.

博弈论代写

经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|A Note About Legal Default Rules

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。