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# 物理代写|核物理代考Nuclear Physics代写|Nuclear reactions and decays

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## 物理代写|核物理代考Nuclear Physics代写|Nuclear reactions and decays

Nuclear species can be transformed in a multitude of nuclear reactions. In nuclear reactions involving only strong and electromagnetic interactions, the number of protons and the number of neutrons are conserved separately. An important example is neutron absorption followed by photon emission, the so-called ” $(n, \gamma) “$ reaction:
$$\mathrm{n}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}) \rightarrow \gamma(\mathrm{A}+1, \mathrm{Z}) \quad \text { i.e. } \quad(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z})(\mathrm{n}, \gamma)(\mathrm{A}+1, \mathrm{Z})$$
The second form is a standard way of denoting the reaction. Other reactions are ” $(\mathrm{p}, \gamma) “$ reactions
$$\mathrm{p}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}) \rightarrow \gamma(\mathrm{A}+1, \mathrm{Z}+1) \text { i.e. }(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z})(\mathrm{p}, \gamma)(\mathrm{A}+1, \mathrm{Z}+1)$$
“( $(\mathrm{n}, \mathrm{p}) “$ reactions
$$\mathrm{n}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}) \rightarrow \mathrm{p}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}-1) \text { i.e. }(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z})(\mathrm{n}, \mathrm{p})(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}-1)$$
and ” $(\mathrm{p}, \mathrm{n})$ ” reactions
$$\mathrm{p}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}) \rightarrow \mathrm{n}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}+1) \quad \text { i.e. } \quad(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z})(\mathrm{p}, \mathrm{n})(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}+1) \text {. }$$
In all these reactions, the final state nucleus may be produced in an excited state so additional photons are produced in de-excitation.

## 物理代写|核物理代考Nuclear Physics代写|Conservation laws

The investigation of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions comes from the experimental and theoretical analysis of reactions. These reactions can be scattering experiments with or without production of particles, and decays of the unstable particles produced in these reactions.

Various fundamental conservation laws govern nuclear reactions. The laws allow the identification of particles, i.e. the determination of their masses, spins, energies, momenta etc.

The most important laws are energy-momentum conservation, angular momentum conservation and electric charge conservation. In nuclear physics, other laws play an important role such as lepton number, baryon number and isospin conservation.

In this book, we shall mainly make use of simple “selection rules” implied by these conservation laws. In this section, we will first discuss the experimental and phenomenological consequences of the most important laws. We will then show how the conservation laws are related to invariance properties of transition operators between initial and final states, or, equivalently, invariance laws of Hamiltonians of the systems under consideration.

# 核物理代写

## 物理代写|核物理代考Nuclear Physics代写|Nuclear reactions and decays

$$\mathrm{n}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}) \rightarrow \gamma(\mathrm{A}+1, \mathrm{Z}) \quad \text { i.e. } \quad(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z})(\mathrm{n}, \gamma)(\mathrm{A}+1, \mathrm{Z})$$

$$\mathrm{p}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}) \rightarrow \gamma(\mathrm{A}+1, \mathrm{Z}+1) \text { i.e. }(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z})(\mathrm{p}, \gamma)(\mathrm{A}+1, \mathrm{Z}+1)$$
($(\mathrm{n}, \mathrm{p}) “$反应)
$$\mathrm{n}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}) \rightarrow \mathrm{p}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}-1) \text { i.e. }(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z})(\mathrm{n}, \mathrm{p})(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}-1)$$

$$\mathrm{p}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}) \rightarrow \mathrm{n}(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}+1) \quad \text { i.e. } \quad(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z})(\mathrm{p}, \mathrm{n})(\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{Z}+1) \text {. }$$

## 物理代写|核物理代考Nuclear Physics代写|Conservation laws

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。