Posted on Categories:Game theory , 博弈论, 经济代写

# 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|SETS

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## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|SETS

A set is any collection of distinct items. For example, the “days of the week” is a set comprising the following seven things: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Each member of a set is called an element of the set; the term point has the same meaning. One way of mathematically describing a set is to list its elements, separated by commas and surrounded by brackets, as such:
$${\mathrm{M}, \mathrm{Tu}, \mathrm{W}, \mathrm{Th}, \mathrm{F}, \mathrm{Sa}, \mathrm{Su}}$$
Note that for convenience, I use M to stand for Monday, Tu for Tuesday, and so on. Abbreviations such as these are often helpful.

Another example of a set is “integers from 1 to 100,” which can be represented as
$${1,2,3, \ldots, 100}$$
Note how an ellipsis $(\ldots)$ is used to signify the continuation of a pattern. The set of “positive odd integers” has no upper bound, so we represent it as
$${1,3,5, \ldots} .$$

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|FUNCTIONS AND CALCULUS

A function describes a way of associating the elements of one set $X$ with elements of another set $Y$. For each point $x \in X$, the function names a single point $y \in Y$; the point $y$ associated with $x$ is denoted by $y=f(x)$. For example,suppose $X={a, b}$ and $Y={3,4}$. A function $f$ might be defined by $f(a)=4$ and $f(b)=3$. Another function $g$ might be defined by $g(a)=3$ and $g(b)=3$. (A single $y$ value can be associated with more than one $x$ value.) To make clear between which sets a function relates, we usually write the expression $f: X \rightarrow Y$, which means ” $f$ maps $X$ into $Y$.” Here $X$ is called the domain and $Y$ is called the codomain. The set of points that $f$ can return, which is defined by
$${f(x) \mid x \in X}$$
is called the range of $f$. Many functions of interest map the real numbers into the same set. For example, we could define the function $f: \mathbf{R} \rightarrow \mathbf{R}$ by $f(x)=x^2$. In this case, if $x=3$ then $y=f(3)=9$, if $x=5$ then $y=25$, and so forth.
Real functions (those with real domains and ranges) can be graphed in the $\mathbf{R} \times \mathbf{R}$ product space-this is the usual $x / y$ plane. The graph plots the set of vectors of the form $(x, y)$, where $x \in \mathbf{R}$ and $y=f(x)$ is the value at $x$. The graph of $f(x)=x^2$ is depicted in Figure A.1. To determine the graph of a function, start by plugging in some numbers for $x$ and plotting the resulting $(x, y)$ vectors. Also find the $x$ – and $y$-intercepts, which are the vectors that correspond to $x=0$ in the first case and $y=0$ in the second case. Another useful exercise is to check what happens to $y$ as $x$ converges to positive and negative infinity. For example, as $x$ gets either very high or very low (large negative), $x^2$ becomes a very large positive number. Thus, the graph of $f(x)=x^2$ points upward on the right and the left.

# 博弈论代写

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|SETS

$${\mathrm{M}, \mathrm{Tu}, \mathrm{W}, \mathrm{Th}, \mathrm{F}, \mathrm{Sa}, \mathrm{Su}}$$

$${1,2,3, \ldots, 100}$$

$${1,3,5, \ldots} .$$

## 经济代写|博弈论代考Game theory代写|FUNCTIONS AND CALCULUS

$${f(x) \mid x \in X}$$

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。