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## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|THE TRANSIT OF LIGHT IN THE HUMAN EYE

Because the eye is a light-detection instrument, it is of great importance to understand the interaction between light and matter in the eye. These interactions are classified on the macroscopic scale, in terms of the human scale of observation, into four main categories: refraction, reflection, scattering, and absorption.

Reflection and refraction describe macroscopic effects associated with light encountering an interface separating two media with different propagation speeds, which is represented by a change in the index of refraction. Part of the beam returns to the original medium (for example, air); this effect is reflection. Part of the beam propagates in the subsequent medium (for example, glass); this effect is refraction.
Scattering and absorption describe the microscopic interaction of light with matter and result in changes in the propagation path or a transfer of energy.
In scattering (see $\S 2.5 .3$ ), light exits the medium in a random direction without transferring to any other form of energy. The direction of light propagation changes randomly and therefore in all directions, with a strong preference for the forward direction.
On the other hand, in absorption (see $\S 2.5 .3$ ), light energy is converted into another form, usually heat. For example, during thermal absorption, light is converted into molecular oscillations (macroscopically, this is heat). Sunlight warms us precisely via the mechanism of thermal absorption. During electrochemical absorption, which is the main mechanism for light detection in the eye ( $\S 4.3)$, light energy is used to break molecular bonds. An effect often following absorption is the re-emission of light to other, longer wavelengths. The associated effects are fluorescence and phosphorescence.

## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Losses due to Reflection

Any optical interface reflects part of the light energy incident on it. We are interested in the analytical expressions for the amplitude reflection coefficient $\rho$, the ratio of the reflected amplitude to the incident amplitude of the electric field $E$, and the amplitude transmission coefficient $\tau$, the ratio of the refracted (transmitted) amplitude to the incident amplitude. The subscript indices $\mathrm{i}, \mathrm{r}$, and $\mathrm{t}$ denote the incident, reflected, and transmitted electric field, respectively:
$$\rho=\frac{E_{\mathrm{r}}}{E_{\mathrm{i}}} \quad \text { and } \quad \tau=\frac{E_{\mathrm{t}}}{E_{\mathrm{i}}}$$
A sensor (the eye is a sensor) records intensity, not the electric field. Thus, the directly measurable quantities are reflectance or reflectivity $R=\rho^2$, the dimensionless ratio of the reflected light intensity to the incident light intensity, and transmittance or transmissivity $T=\tau^2$, the ratio of the refracted (transmitted) light intensity to the incident light intensity:
Reflectivity:
$$R \equiv \frac{\text { reflected light intensity } I_r}{\text { incident light intensity } I_i}$$
These are the Fresnel coefficients ${ }^{201}$ named after the French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel. If there are no losses, then $R+T=\rho^2+\tau^2=1$, which means that the total amount of incident light is either reflected or refracted (transmitted).

# 光学代写

## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Losses due to Reflection

$$\rho=\frac{E_{\mathrm{r}}}{E_{\mathrm{i}}} \quad \text { and } \quad \tau=\frac{E_{\mathrm{t}}}{E_{\mathrm{i}}}$$

$$R \equiv \frac{\text { reflected light intensity } I_r}{\text { incident light intensity } I_i}$$

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Optics, 光学, 物理代写

## avatest™帮您通过考试

avatest™的各个学科专家已帮了学生顺利通过达上千场考试。我们保证您快速准时完成各时长和类型的考试，包括in class、take home、online、proctor。写手整理各样的资源来或按照您学校的资料教您，创造模拟试题，提供所有的问题例子，以保证您在真实考试中取得的通过率是85%以上。如果您有即将到来的每周、季考、期中或期末考试，我们都能帮助您！

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## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Pupillary Response

Pupillary response or pupil light reflex is a physiological response that leads to a change in the pupil diameter (size). While the pupil diameter (PD) is about $3.5 \mathrm{~mm}$, the pupil constricts under a bright light to $1.5$ or $2 \mathrm{~mm}$ in diameter and expands under dim light up to $8 \mathrm{~mm}$.

Pupil constriction and dilation can be brought about by the contraction of the sphincter and the dilator pupillae, two antagonistic autonomic (reflex) muscles. The sphincter muscle $\left(\sigma \varphi \iota \gamma \kappa \tau \eta^{\prime} \rho \alpha \varsigma\right)$, innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, is a circumferential muscle that forms a ring around the iris edge; its contraction leads to pupil constriction. The dilator muscle ( $\left.\delta \iota \alpha \sigma \tau o \lambda \varepsilon^{\prime} \alpha \varsigma\right)$, innervated by the sympathetic nerve system, forms radially from the iris edge into the ciliary body; its contraction leads to excitation of the radial fibers of the iris, which leads to an increased pupillary aperture.

## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Pupil Symmetry Fluctuations

In a perfectly symmetric eye, the pupil center would be on the axis of symmetry, the optical axis. In an actual eye, the pupil center is slightly offset nasally by about $0.5 \mathrm{~mm}_1{ }^{142}$ and the pupil center shifts with pupil diameter variations; this is the centroid shift: ${ }^{171,172}$ The pupil center shifts temporally by up to about $0.6 \mathrm{~mm}$ as the pupil dilates $(\S 2.4 .3)$.

The acronym PERRLA stands for pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation. It is a convenient but incomplete description of pupilomotor function, as it does not include the actual size and shape of each pupil, the speed and extent of pupillary constriction, and the possible afferent pupillary defect.

# 光学代写

## 物理代寻|光学代考Optics代写|Pupillary Response

䁴孔㡱应或瞳孔光反射是导致瞳孔直径 (大小) 变化的生理反应。瞳孔直径 (PD) 约为 $3.5 \mathrm{~mm}$ ，瞳孔在强光下收缩至 $1.5$ 或者 $2 \mathrm{~mm}$ 直径并在婚暗的光线下膨胀至 $8 \mathrm{~mm}$.
䁴孔收缩和扩张可由括约肌和瞳孔扩张器这两种对抗性自主神经 (反射) 肌肉的收缩引起。括约肌 $\left(\sigma \varphi \iota \gamma \kappa \tau \eta^{\prime} \rho \alpha \varsigma\right.$ )，由副交感神 虹臗边烼呈放射状进入睷状体；它的收縮导致虹膜的径向纤维兴奋，从而导致瞳孔孔径增加。

## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Pupil Symmetry Fluctuations

In the monocular examination, the eye that is examined (the opposite eye is occluded) must be noted; i.e., whether it is the right OD (Latin: Oculus Dexter) or the left OS (Latin: Oculus Sinister) eye. Vision assessed with both eyes open is noted as OU (Latin: Oculus Uterque).

# 光学代写

## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Snellen Chart Limitations

Snellen 视力表在历史上一直是临床实践中最流行的视力表。术语“Snellen 视力表”是多个字母视力表的总称，类似于由不同制造商提供的原始 Snellen 视力表。没有标准的、全球统一的斯内伦图；一世276不同制造商的图表因字体（衬线或非衬线）、使用的字母/数字以及垂直行距比和大小进展而有所不同。277即使没有使用常见的标准测试程序或图表，临床医生也经常提到“Snellen 视力”。278

## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Visual Acuity Notation

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Optics, 光学, 物理代写

## avatest™帮您通过考试

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## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Aberrations and Visual Acuity

We just stated that a larger pupil affords a better visual acuity. Does this really happen? Not at all. There are other competing mechanisms, which, in effect, degrade image quality. These include myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism, which are collectively known as defocus errors or low-order aberrations. But these can be well corrected with a spherocylindrical spectacle prescription (§ 6.6). Even in a corrected (emmetropic) eye, the other parameters that affect the limit to vision are the high-order aberrations, such as spherical aberration and coma.251 To include the effects of aberrations, we need a more general expression for the Airy disk. This is the point spread function (PSF). In the diffraction-limited case, the PSF has the shape of an Airy disk. Aberrations severely affect light distribution at the image plane. The image spot corresponding to a single object-point is the point spread function.252 The PSF is, in general, a 3-D function. The –z dimension is intensity, while the –x and –y dimensions correspond to the cross-sectional shape at the image-forming plane.

## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Other Factors Affecting Visual Acuity

A variety of factors affect visual acuity; these include the physiological health and integrity of the eye. In a cataractous eye, for example, scatter from a cloudy crystalline lens impairs not only visual acuity, but the overall visual performance because of the significantly increased disability glare (§ 2.5.3). The same is true for an eye with a corneal scar, particularly if the opacity is within the optical zone. Regardless of its refractive status, an eye with compromised retinal health, such as one presenting with macular degeneration, cannot have good visual performance.

# 光学代写

## 物理代写|光学代考Optics代写|Other Factors Affecting Visual Acuity

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。