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## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写Introduction to Photonics代考|The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The rainbow colors of visible light make up only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. While the electromagnetic spectrum spans wavelengths from a fraction of a picometer to several hundred meters, the wavelengths of visible light extend only from about $400 \mathrm{~nm}$ for violet to about $700 \mathrm{~nm}$ for red. These wavelengths are not distinct boundaries; the wavelengths at which the visible spectrum fades away at either end depend somewhat on the individual as well as the viewing conditions. The colors of the visible spectrum, from long wavelength to short wavelength, can be remembered by the acronym “ROY G. BV”: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.

Figure $2.5$ shows the electromagnetic spectrum with approximate wavelengths from wavelengths $10^{-14}$ meters to more than 1000 meters. Beginning at violet light and progressing toward shorter wavelengths we have ultraviolet (UV) rays, then $\mathrm{x}$-rays, and finally gamma rays. In the region beyond red are infrared (IR), microwaves, and radio waves. All of these terms describe electromagnetic radiation, differing only by wavelength.

What we call “light” usually means what humans are capable of sensing, that is, the visible spectrum. In some contexts, however, the word “light” includes portions of the UV and IR regions; this is sometimes called the optical spectrum. Human vision is limited to a small range of wavelengths because our retinal sensors cannot be stimulated by low-energy infrared light, and the lens of our eye blocks UV light. However, other animals, including many insects, can sense UV light, and photographs taken of flowers and butterflies illuminated with UV light often look very different from the same items illuminated with visible light. In fact, imaging with radiation from different parts of the spectrum allows scientists to study such diverse phenomena as crop diseases and star formation. Specialized film or detectors are used to create images over wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum invisible to human eyes. Chapter 12 will explore the science and technology of optical imaging.

## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写Introduction to Photonics代考|INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS

At the end of the 19th century, physicists were fairly certain that the science was complete in its description of the physical world and only minor details remained to be explained. One of these details was the photoelectric effect. The effect was puzzling because the emission of electrons from an illuminated metal depends upon the wavelength of the light, not the irradiance. For example, a certain metal target might emit electrons when illuminated with ultraviolet light but not when illuminated with red light, even if the red light strikes with a much higher irradiance than the UV.

The explanation of the photoelectric effect proposed by Einstein in 1905 is that the light striking the metal is a stream of particles, later given the name photons, and the energy of each photon is directly proportional to the frequency of the associated radiation. Mathematically
$$E=\mathrm{h} f .$$
The constant of proportionality, $\mathrm{h}$, is called Planck’s constant and is equal to $6.626 \times 10^{-34}$ joule ${ }^2$ second. The constant is named for Max Planck, sometimes called the “father of quantum physics,” who was the first to correctly describe the wavelength spectrum of radiation produced by a glowing hot object.

A photon can be described as the smallest division of a light beam that retains properties of the beam such as frequency, wavelength, and energy; it is a quantum unit of light energy. A photon is sometimes described as a wave packet that has specific energy content. Although we speak of photons as particles, they have some pretty bizarre properties. For example, a photon has energy, but no mass. It does carry momentum, and if it stops moving it ceases to exist!

## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写Introduction to Photonics代考| Introduction to QUANTUM OPTICS

$$E=\mathrm{h} f .$$

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写Introduction to Photonics代考|Calculating Optical Density for LSE

The lens of the eyewear is a filter/absorber designed to reduce light transmission of a specific wavelength or band of wavelengths. The absorption capability of the lens material is described by the optical density (OD). If $E_{\mathrm{o}}$ is the irradiance incident on an absorbing material and $E_{\mathrm{T}}$ is the irradiance transmitted through the material, the transmitted irradiance is related to the $O D$ by an exponential function:
$$E_T=E_0 10^{-O D}$$
The transmittance $(T)$ of light through an absorber is defined as the ratio of $E_{\mathrm{T}} / E_0$. We can rewrite Equation $1.2$ in a form used commonly with optical filters:
$$T=\frac{E_T}{E_0}=10^{-O D}$$
Thus, an $O D$ of 1 means the filter has reduced the irradiance of the beam to $1 / 10^1=1 / 10$ of its original irradiance and $O D$ of 5 means the filter has reduced the irradiance of the beam to $1 / 10^5=1 / 100,000$ of its original irradiance. The required $O D$ for laser safety eyewear is the minimum $O D$ necessary to reduce the beam to a nonhazardous level. Optical density for a given wavelength is usually labeled on the temple of the goggles or on the filter itself. Often, laser safety eyewear is labeled with the $O D$ for several wavelength ranges.

To calculate the $O D$ required for a particular laser, we need to know the incident radiation on the front surface of the LSE, $E_0$. The irradiance transmitted by the LSE cannot exceed the maximum permissible exposure (MPE). If we replace $E_{\mathrm{T}}$ in Equation $1.2$ with MPE, we get
$$10^{-O D}=\frac{E_0}{M P E}$$
or, equivalently
$$M P E=E_0 10^{-O D}$$
Solving the last expression for $O D$ gives a useful equation for calculating required $O D$ for laser safety eyewear:
$$O D=\log _{10}\left(\frac{E_0}{M P E}\right)$$

## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写Introduction to Photonics代考|LASER SAFETY CONTROLS

To ensure safe use of lasers, administrative controls and engineering controls are required. Warning signs and labels, standard operating procedures, personal protective equipment, and laser safety training are examples of administrative controls. Engineering controls are designed into lasers and laser systems to prevent accidental exposure of eyes or skin. Shutters, interlocks, delayed emission, and remote firing are examples of engineering controls incorporated into laser system design.

ANSI Z136.1 states that any facility operating Class 3B and Class 4 lasers must have designated a person to serve as Laser Safety Officer (LSO). The job of the LSO is to ensure that laser safety procedures are in place and followed during

laser operation and maintenance. Courses are available to train LSOs and help them remain current with ANSI standards.

Among the administrative controls required by the ANSI Z136.12014 Safe Use of Lasers standards are warning signs and labels for lasers and for work areas where lasers are in use. The most common sign used for lasers and laser systems is the WARNING sign used for entryways into facilities operating Class $3 \mathrm{~B}$ and Class 4 lasers. The DANGER sign is reserved for situations where serious injury or death will result if control measures are not put in place. Sign dimensions, letter size, font, layout, color, and other design elements must be in accordance with the ANSI Z535, a U.S. standard that provides a system for presenting safety and accident prevention information. (See Figure 1.5.)

## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写光子学介绍代考|计算LSE的光密度

$$E_T=E_0 10^{-O D}$$

$$T=\frac{E_T}{E_0}=10^{-O D}$$

$$10^{-O D}=\frac{E_0}{M P E}$$

$$M P E=E_0 10^{-O D}$$

$$O D=\log _{10}\left(\frac{E_0}{M P E}\right)$$

## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写光子学介绍代考|LASER安全控制

ANSI Z136.1规定任何运行3B类和4类激光器的设施必须指定一个人担任激光安全官(LSO)。LSO的工作是确保激光安全程序到位，并在

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Introduction to Photonics, 光子简介, 电子代写

## avatest™帮您通过考试

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## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写Introduction to Photonics代考|LASER SAFETY OVERVIEW

The availability of a large variety of affordable lasers has made the laser a common tool in industry, medicine, research, and education. You will no doubt use lasers or see laser demonstrations if you are enrolled in an optics or photonics course. Whether you are working with lasers in a school laboratory, using lasers on the job, or watching a laser show, you should be aware of how lasers differ from other light sources and how these differences translate into rules for the safe use of lasers.

The safe handling and use of lasers depends on many factors: the wavelength (or color) of the light, the power (or power density, called irradiance), the viewing conditions, and whether the laser is continuously on (called continuous wave, or $\mathrm{cw})$ or pulsed. We will discuss the basic concepts of laser safety in this chapter and, throughout, one important idea prevails: Treat every laser with respect and care.

Many state, federal, and international laser safety standards exist, but the one most often quoted in the United States is the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI) Z136 series of laser safety standards. ANSI is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development, distribution, and use of all types of standards and also accredits the procedures used by the organizations that develop standards. The parent document on laser safety standards, ANSI Z136.1, provides complete information on laser classifications, hazards, and controls, and is de-signed to be a reference for users of all types of lasers. Other documents in the series are numbered sequentially (Z136.2 through Z136.9) and cover specific uses of lasers in areas such as health care, education, telecommunications, and outdoor light shows. The documents are available from the Laser Institute of America at its website www.laserinstitute.org.

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has also created a series of laser safety regulations covering all aspects of laser use and laser product labeling. Like the ANSI standards used in the United States, these international regulations are constantly being updated to reflect current research on laser hazards and new types of lasers. ANSI and IEC work together in an effort to harmonize regulations worldwide, a necessity in a global economy.

U.S. manufacturers of lasers and laser systems must comply with regulations of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Among the product safety standards is a requirement that each laser must bear a label indicating the laser hazard classification and information on the beam power and wavelength. Since 2007, the CDRH has allowed American laser manufacturers to conform to the IEC regulations, which reduces the burden of having to show compliance with two different sets of rules. The revised classifications use Arabic numerals 1-4 to refer to laser class, and the letters $\mathrm{M}$ and $\mathrm{R}$ for subclasses, as noted below. You may still see older lasers with the previous system that used Roman numerals I-IV and subclasses designated by the letter A.

## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写Introduction to Photonics代考|CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER LIGHT

The video instructor in the introductory paragraph was correct that a laser produces light. (We are including ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation in this broad definition of light.) However, laser light has some very unique characteristics that distinguish it from ordinary light sources. After all, you might be burned by touching a 60-watt lightbulb, but a 60-watt laser can slice through several millimeters of wood. The light from most lasers is usually described as:
monochromatic Lasers emit a single wavelength (color) or narrow band of wavelengths.
coherent The light produced by a laser consists of waves that are “in step.”
(Coherence will be further explored in Chapter 6.)
highly directional Most laser beams do not spread much as they propagate.
We say they are “collimated” and, as a result, beam energy is concentrated in a small area.
In Chapter 9 , we will further explore the properties of laser light.

## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写Introduction to Photonics代考|LASER SAFETY OVERVIEW

. LASER SAFETY OVERVIEW

## 电子工程代写|光子简介代写光子学介绍代考|激光的特性

(相干性将在第6章中进一步探讨)高方向性大多数激光束在传播时不会传播很多。我们说它们是“准直的”，因此，束能量集中在一个小区域。在第九章中，我们将进一步探讨激光的性质

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。