Posted on Categories:Management Accounting, 会计代写, 管理会计

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The simplest case for determining the full cost per unit of output is where a business produces a single product or service. Here the production process will involve a series of continuous or repetitive activities and the output will consist of identical, or near identical, items. To calculate the full cost per unit of output, we must average the total manufacturing cost over the number of units produced. It is simply a matter of adding up all of the elements of cost of production incurred in a particular period (materials, labour, rent, fuel, power and so on) and dividing this total by the total number of units of output for that period. This approach is referred to as process costing.

Fruitjuice Ltd began operations at the beginning of May. It has just one product, a sparkling orange drink that is marketed as ‘Orange Fizz’. During May the business produced 7,300 litres of the drink. The manufacturing cost incurred was made up as follows:
$\begin{array}{lr} & £ \ \text { Ingredients (oranges, sugar, water and so on) } & 390 \ \text { Fuel } & 85 \ \text { Rent of factory accommodation } & 350 \ \text { Depreciation of equipment } & 75 \ \text { Labour } & 852\end{array}$
What is the full cost per litre of producing ‘Orange Fizz’ in May?
Full cost per litre $=$ Total manufacturing costs/Number of litres produced
\begin{aligned} &=£(390+85+350+75+852) / 7,300 \ &=1,752 / 7,300 \ &=£ 0.24 \text { per litre } \end{aligned}

## 会计代写|管理会计代考MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING代写|Process-costing problems

Process costing tends to be fairly straightforward as it involves tracking the production of identical, or near identical, items. Nevertheless, problems can still arise when measuring certain elements of manufacturing cost. In the case of Fruitjuice Ltd, for example, how is the cost of depreciation deduced? It can only be an estimate and so its reliability is open to question. The cost of raw materials may also be a problem. Should we use the ‘relevant’ cost of the raw materials (in this case, almost certainly the replacement cost), or the actual price paid for it (historic cost)? As the cost per litre will presumably be used for decision-making purposes, replacement cost seems likely to provide the more logical choice. For some reason, however, historic cost seems to be more widely used in practice.

There can also be problems in calculating how much output was produced. If making Orange Fizz is not a very fast process, some of the product will be in the process of being made at any given moment. Partially completed Orange Fizz represents work in progress (or work in process) that should be taken into account when calculating the total output, and cost per unit of output, for a period. This can, however, be a little tricky. In Example $4.1$ we see why and how we deal with work in progress.

## 管理会计代写

Fruitjuice Ltd 于 5 月初开始运营。它只有一种产品，一种名为“Orange Fizz”的闪亮橙色饮料。5 月份，该公司生产了 7,300 升这种饮料。产生的制造成本构成如下：
£  配料（橙子、糖、水等） 390  汽油 85  厂房租金 350  设备折旧 75  劳动 852

=£(390+85+350+75+852)/7,300 =1,752/7,300 =£0.24 每升

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Management Accounting, 会计代写, 管理会计

## avatest™帮您通过考试

avatest™的各个学科专家已帮了学生顺利通过达上千场考试。我们保证您快速准时完成各时长和类型的考试，包括in class、take home、online、proctor。写手整理各样的资源来或按照您学校的资料教您，创造模拟试题，提供所有的问题例子，以保证您在真实考试中取得的通过率是85%以上。如果您有即将到来的每周、季考、期中或期末考试，我们都能帮助您！

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## 会计代写|管理会计代考MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING代写|SUNK COST FALLACY

Although we should ignore past costs when considering future courses of action, this is often easier said than done. It seems that people often display an irrational commitment to past costs. We persist in continuing along a particular path because of our previous investment of time, effort or money. The end result is often to make poor decisions about the future direction. Managers can be as guilty of this kind of behaviour as anyone else.

In behavioural economics, the refusal to abandon an attachment to an irrecoverable investment is known as the sunk cost fallacy. Various reasons have been suggested as to why we act in this way. In Real World $2.5$ we consider some of these.

## 会计代写|管理会计代考MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING代写|Clinging to the past

Perhaps you have said, or heard, the following sort of comments:
‘I might as well finish this book. It’s not very good but I paid for it and now I’m more than half way through.’
‘I can’t throw out these shoes. They are almost new and, although they hurt my feet, I paid a fortune for them.’
‘I really don’t want to buy the car any more. However, I paid the dealer a non-refundable deposit and so I suppose I should go ahead.’
‘I hate my job as an accountant but I’ve invested too many years of my life to achieve the qualifications just to throw it all away.’

Such comments show an attachment to past decisions rather than a concern for the future. They are irrational because costs previously incurred are not a good guide to maximising future utility. The investment of time, money or other resources should not be determined by what has already been spent.

Why do we do this? It may be because we suffer from loss aversion, which is a strong dislike of wasting resources. This is a strong negative emotion: the greater the amount wasted, the greater the suffering. The pain of incurring losses is usually much greater than the pleasure achieved by making equivalent gains. We may, therefore, stick with the book or the job in the hope that things improve in the future.

To abandon an investment may lead to feelings of regret and failure, which we may seek to avoid. It may also attract criticism. We may be blamed for giving up too easily or for making the original investment. This can make it difficult to own up to our poor decisions. Finally, we may not be able to see clearly the options available by not sticking with the investment. However, new opportunities may come into view once we have abandoned the sunk cost.

An example of the sunk cost fallacy in business occurred when the British and French governments agreed to develop the Concorde – a supersonic passenger jet. This turned out to be a very bad investment. Development costs were much higher than expected and it became clear, before the project was completed, that it would not be financially viable. Nevertheless, both governments decided to press ahead and complete the project rather than admit failure and write off the investment cost. Many believe that the decision to continue was largely determined by the costs already incurred. The Concorde was in operation from 1976 to $2003 .$

## 会计代写|管理会计代考MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING代写|Clinging to the past

‘我不妨完成这本书。这不是很好，但我付了钱，现在我已经完成了一半以上。
“我不能扔掉这双鞋。他们几乎是新的，虽然他们伤了我的脚，但我为他们付出了一大笔钱。
“我真的不想再买这辆车了。但是，我向经销商支付了不可退还的押金，所以我想我应该继续。
“我讨厌我的会计师工作，但我花了太多年的时间来获得资格，只是为了把它扔掉。”

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。