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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Ways to Reduce Market Power

To reduce the negative impact on society, governments often try to limit the market power of monopolists. Some popular measures include

• Price regulations. If it can be known what the market price would have been under perfect competition, or if the cost of production is known, the government can decide on a price ceiling at that price. Thereby, the equilibrium point is moved to the optimal point from society’s viewpoint. It is, however, very difficult to estimate the optimal price.
• Increase competition. If the monopoly has been created through political decisions, the regulation can be changed.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|First Degree Price Discrimination

Remember that the demand curve corresponds to the consumers’ valuation of different quantities of the good. Suppose, for example, that we have four presumptive consumers who want to buy a maximum of one unit of the good. The first is willing to pay 4 for one unit of the good, the others 3, 2, and 1 , respectively. We then get a demand curve as $D$ in Figure 12.1: If the price is 4, we sell one unit to the first customer, if it is 3 we sell one unit to each of the first two, and so on. We have indicated the reservation prices of each customer with a star and then joint them with a straight line.

Furthermore, assume that the monopolist has a constant marginal cost, $\mathrm{MC}=2$, and no fixed cost. Then $\mathrm{AVC}=\mathrm{ATC}=\mathrm{MC}$. In a perfectly competitive market, the equilibrium price would have been $\mathrm{p}^=2$ and the quantity sold would have been $\mathrm{Q}^=3$. The firm’s revenue would have been $3^* 2=6\left(\mathrm{Q}^* \mathrm{p}\right)$, and its cost $3^* 2=6\left(\mathrm{Q}^* \mathrm{ATC}\right)$. Its profit would therefore have been zero. The consumer surplus (CS) would have been the sum of each customer’s surplus, i.e. the difference between his or her valuation and how much he or she pays. For the first customer, the surplus is $4-2=2$, for the second $3-2=1$, and for the third $2-2=0$. Therefore, we get a total consumer surplus of $\mathrm{CS}=3$. (Compare to Chapter 10.)

In a monopoly market of the type we analyzed in Chapter 11 , the firm would have found the quantity at which $\mathrm{MC}=\mathrm{MR}$, i.e. $\mathrm{Q}=1.5$. If it can only sell whole units, it would have chosen to produce only one unit that it would have sold at a price of 4 . The profit (= PS) would then be $1^*(4-2)=2$, which is higher than in the perfectly competitive case. CS would be $4-4=0$.

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|First Degree Price Discrimination

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|The Firm’s Short-Run Supply Curve

What happens if the market price changes? Then MR changes, and the point of intersection between MR and $\mathrm{MC}$ also changes. The firm will then choose to produce the quantity that corresponds to the new point of intersection, so the quantity supplied follows the $\mathrm{MC}$ curve as the price changes.

However, this is only true as long as the price is higher than AVC. To see why, look at the shut down condition above again. Suppose the market price falls to the point where the MC curve intersects the AVC curve, i.e. at the quantity $\mathrm{q}=72$ in the figure. At that point, $M R=p=M C=A V C$ and the profit becomes $\mathrm{q}^(\mathrm{p}-\mathrm{AVC})-\mathrm{FC}=72^ 0-\mathrm{FC}=-\mathrm{FC}$. Note that $\mathrm{p}-\mathrm{AVC}$ is what the firm gets paid in excess of average variable cost for each unit it sells; $q^*(p-A V C)$ is then what it gets paid in excess of average variable cost for all units it sells; finally, subtracting FC yields what it gets paid in excess of all costs (= profit).

The loss is consequently as large as if we choose to produce nothing at all. If the price falls even more, the losses increase and it is better to produce nothing.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Short-Run Equilibrium

In Figure 9.2, we have summarized the equilibrium in the market and the equilibrium for an individual representative firm. To the right in the figure, we have the individual firm’s MC-, ATC-, and AVC curves. The short-run supply curve of the firm is the part of the MC curve that is above AVC. For prices below $\mathrm{p}_{\min }$, there is consequently no supply at all. If we sum all firms’ supply curves, we get the market’s supply curve, $\mathrm{S}$, to the left in the figure. ( $\Sigma(\mathrm{MC})$ means “the sum of all MC curves.”)

In the market, supply meets demand, $\mathrm{D}$, and an equilibrium price, $\mathrm{p}^$, and an equilibrium quantity, $\mathrm{Q}^$, arise. $\mathrm{p}^$ is the price that the individual firm receives for each unit of the good it sells. Since there are a large number of firms, no individual firm can charge a higher price than $\mathrm{p}^$. If some firm did, the consumers would choose one of its competitors instead. The MR curve of an individual firm is consequently horizontal and equal to the price, $\mathrm{p}^$. The firm chooses to produce the quantity $\mathrm{q}^$, as this quantity makes $\mathrm{MC}=\mathrm{MR}$ and, consequently, maximizes profit.

In the short run, a firm in a perfectly competitive market can make a profit. In Figure $9.2$, the profit corresponds to the grey rectangle on the right-hand side. To see that this is the profit, note that in a perfectly competitive market AR (Average Revenue) is as large as $\mathrm{MR}$ is, since the firm is paid the same amount for each unit sold. Furthermore, $\mathrm{q}^* \mathrm{AR}=\mathrm{TR}$ and $\mathrm{q}^* \mathrm{ATC}=\mathrm{TC}$. Profit is then $\pi=\mathrm{TR}-\mathrm{TC}$. To summarize, we have that
$$\pi=T R-T C=q^* A R-q^* A T C=q^*(M R-A T C)$$

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|The Firm’s Short-Run Supply Curve

$\left.\mathrm{q}^{(\mathrm{p}}-\mathrm{AVC}\right)-\mathrm{FC}=72^0-\mathrm{FC}=-\mathrm{FC}$. 注意p $-\mathrm{AVC}$ 是公司每售出一个单位所获得的超过平均可变成本的报酬;
$q^*(p-A V C)$ 那么它得到的报酬超过了它销隹的所有单位的平均可变成本; 最后，减去 $\mathrm{FC}$ 得到的收益超过所有成本（= 利 润) 。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Short-Run Equilibrium

，出现。缺少上标或下标参数

MR 曲线是水平的并且等于价格，缺少上标或下标参数 $\quad$. 企业选择生产数量

$$\pi=T R-T C=q^* A R-q^* A T C=q^*(M R-A T C)$$

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Microeconomics, 微观经济学, 经济代写

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Some models

Technically, an “evolutionist game” is defined by a stage game and a dynamic process. The stage game is stated in normal or extensive form, and only defines the utilities associated with the possible combinations of actions. The dynamic process specifies the principles of confrontation, information, evaluation and decision which are at work in the repetition of the stage game. It is thus by specifying the dynamics that the modeler can introduce the actual processes she thinks are pertinent, dealing with best responses, learning, selection, imitation, reinforcement, and so on.

Two kinds of contributions characterize evolutionist game theory. On one hand, the theory tried to find descriptions of the temporal behavior of the system that do not depend too much upon the detail of the considered dynamic process. Such results have been obtained for some classes of “simple” dynamic processes that only incorporate a selection or a reinforcement mechanism, coupled with a mutation or exploration mechanism of low intensity. On the other hand, evolutionist game theory has been able to provide new insights on some specific questions like the diffusion of technologies or the genesis of institutions. Several monographs provide surveys of the technical achievements of evolutionist game theory, for instance Maynard Smith (1982), Weibull (1995), Skyrms (1996), Vega-Redondo (1996), Samuelson (1997), Young (1998) or Fudenberg and Levine (1998).

The models and interpretations of evolutionist game theory fluctuate between two poles: population dynamics and individual learning. In population dynamics, there is a large number of individuals, each of whom being endowed with a strategy he does not control. This strategy remains constant, except in case of mutations, which are random and relatively rare. Within one population, the variations of the proportion of users of a strategy are led by the selection process, which favors reproduction of the best fitted individuals. By contrast, the theory of individual learning makes the hypothesis that each individual can vary his strategy with time. This variation is stochastic when it incorporates a certain degree of active experimentation. If it is not supposed that the number of individuals is large, one nevertheless supposes that the individuals endlessly apply the same learning rules.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Definitions

All concepts will be introduced with the formalism of two-player normal form games. Let $X_1$ be the set of strategies available to player 1 and, likewise, let $\mathrm{X}_2$ be player 2 strategy set (elements of these sets are “pure” strategies). For $x_1 \in X_1$ and $x_2 \in X_2$, the utilities associated with the strategy profile $\left(x_1, x_2\right)$ are denoted $u_1\left(x_1, x_2\right)$ for player 1 and $u_2\left(x_1, x_2\right)$ for player 2. A game is said to be symmetric if both players play the same role in that game, that is to say they have the same set of available strategies $\left(X_1=X_2=X\right)$ and the payoffs are such that $u_2\left(x_1, x_2\right)=u_1\left(x_2, x_1\right)$. The utility of a player choosing $x$ when the other player chooses $y$ is then simply denoted $u(x, y)$, thus $u(x, y)=u_1(x, y)=u_2(y, x)$.

In the technology game taken as an example, $X_1={A 1, B 1}, X_2={A 2, B 2}$, and the utilities are given by Table $3.1$ :
\begin{aligned} &u_1(A 1, A 2)=2, u_1(A 1, B 2)=b, \ &u_1(B 1, A 2)=c, u_1(B 1, B 2)=4 \end{aligned}
and likewise for player 2. The technology game can be seen as a symmetric game with $X={A, B}$.

If $p_1$ and $p_2$ are two probability distributions over $X_1$ and $X_2$ respectively (such probability distributions are called “mixed strategies”), one also denotes by $u_1$ the expected utility:
$$\begin{gathered} u_1\left(p_1, x_2\right)=\sum_{x \in X_1} u_1\left(x_1, x_2\right) p_1\left(x_1\right) \ u_1\left(p_1, p_2\right)=\sum_{x_1 \in X_2} \sum_{x_2 \in X_2} u_1\left(x_1, x_2\right) p_1\left(x_1\right) p_2\left(x_2\right) \end{gathered}$$
and likewise for $u_2$. Note that the preceding definition leaves open the interpretation of the probabilities. They can be proportions of users in a population, individual propensity to use pure strategies, or temporal frequencies of the occurence of pure strategies.

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Definitions

$$u_1(A 1, A 2)=2, u_1(A 1, B 2)=b, \quad u_1(B 1, A 2)=c, u_1(B 1, B 2)=4$$

$$u_1\left(p_1, x_2\right)=\sum_{x \in X_1} u_1\left(x_1, x_2\right) p_1\left(x_1\right) u_1\left(p_1, p_2\right)=\sum_{x_1 \in X_2} \sum_{x_2 \in X_2} u_1\left(x_1, x_2\right) p_1\left(x_1\right) p_2\left(x_2\right)$$

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Microeconomics, 微观经济学, 经济代写

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Normal Good

Assume we have the same case as we did earlier: A consumer chooses between good 1 and good 2. Giver her income, $m$, the prices of the goods, $\mathrm{p}_{11}$ and $\mathrm{p}_2$, and her preferences, she chooses that basket of goods that maximizes her utility. In Figure 5.1, this means that she initially chooses point $\mathrm{A}$.

If the price of good 1 falls from $\mathrm{p}{11}$ to $\mathrm{p}{12}$, the budget line rotates outwards from $\mathrm{BL}1$ to $\mathrm{BL}_2$. When the consumer chooses a new basket, she ends up in point $\mathrm{B}$. Her consumption of good 1 has consequently increased from $\mathrm{q}{11}$ to $\mathrm{q}_{12}$, which is the total effect.

We now ask ourselves how much of the change in quantity from $\mathrm{q}{11}$ to $\mathrm{q}{12}$ that depends on the income effect (i.e. on the increase in purchasing power) and how much that depends on the substitution effect (i.e. on the change in the slope of the budget line). To answer this question, we first ask another question: If only the relative prices had changed, without the consumer getting any increase in utility, what effect had we then seen.

If the relative prices change, the slope of the budget line changes. All budget lines that have the same relative prices as $\mathrm{BL}2$ must also have the same slopes as that budget line. Furthermore, for the consumer to have the same utility as before, she must consume on the same indifference curve as she did before, i.e. on $\mathrm{I}_1$. We therefore construct an imaginary budget line, $\mathrm{BL}$, that has the same slope as $\mathrm{BL}_2$ and that, just as $\mathrm{BL}_1$, is a tangent to $\mathrm{I}_1$. (However, since it has a different slope than $\mathrm{BL}_1$, it must touch $\mathrm{I}_1$ at different point than that budget line does.) If this had been the real situation, the consumer would have chosen point $\mathrm{C}$. She had then increased her consumption of good 1 from $\mathrm{q}{11}$ to $\mathrm{q}_1{ }^*$. At the same time, she would have decreased her consumption of good 2 . This substitution from good 1 to good 2 depends on the change in the relative price, but it does not result in any change in the level of utility. This part is the substitution effect.

The remaining change, from $\mathrm{q}1{ }^*$ to $\mathrm{q}{12}$, is the part that depends on the increase in the consumer’s purchasing power. As she moves to a higher indifference curve, from $\mathrm{I}_1$ to $\mathrm{I}_2$, she increases her utility. This part is the income effect.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Inferior Good

The strategy to find the income- and substitution effects for an inferior good is exactly the same as for a normal good, but the result will look slightly different. As previously mentioned, an inferior good is a good one buys less of if one’s income increases. The underlying reason for that is to be found in the preferences. As one becomes wealthier, one can afford to buy something of higher quality instead. This preference will have an effect on the shape of the indifference curves.
This time, when we split up the total effect into a substitution effect and an income effect, the income effect for the inferior good is negative. The substitution effect is always positive, which means that we get two cases depending on whether the negative income effect is smaller or larger in magnitude than the always-positive substitution effect. Goods that belong to the latter case are called Giffen goods, and these are a very rare kind of goods. Their distinguishing feature is that one buys more of them if the price rises. In Section 2.1.1, we said that the demand curve almost always slopes downwards. Giffen goods are consequently an exception from that rule.

In Figure 5.2, we have almost the same situation as in 5.1. The difference is that the consumer’s indifference curve $\mathrm{I}_2$ has been changed so that it touches the budget line $\mathrm{BL}_2$ at a point between points $\mathrm{A}$ and $\mathrm{C}$. This change makes the income effect negative and the total effect is smaller than before.

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Inferior Good

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Microeconomics, 微观经济学, 经济代写

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|The elementary market

The aim of economic theory, in the broadest definition of the term, is to analyse the interactions between agents devoted to production, exchange and consumption of goods and services in the widest sense. This analysis must begin by establishing the general principles that govern individual decisions, and this is exactly what the previous chapter was studying. However, this knowledge alone is clearly not enough, because economic interactions are also dependent on the institutional contexts within which they take place. Economic schemes can take one of several different forms, according to the nature of the game rules imposed on the agents. These institutional contexts may vary considerably, as we shall have the opportunity to study throughout this book, but one of them plays a central role in economic analysis, the market, considered as the real or virtual place in which sellers and buyers meet to exchange goods or services. The market, either in its competitive form or in other forms, is the principal subject of microeconomics handbooks, and it is to the market, in its simplest form, that this chapter is devoted.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Background and problems

The pure perfect competition market is the institution which satisfies most exactly the requirements of the individualist approach. Sellers and buyers are anonymous and equal before the law, even though they may possess different economic weights due to the inequality of initial endowments. Each agent has access to the same information, namely the exogenous quality of the goods and the publicly announced price. The available possibilities of exchange are taken up by the private agents when they are seen to represent a means of increasing their utility. In such a context, the pursuit by each individual of their personal interest results in voluntary transactions. These transactions are only mutually compatible when the total of individual demands is equal to the total of individual supplies. The market is then said to be in equilibrium. The key theoretical question posed by these markets is that of their self-regulation: are the forces of competition powerful enough to result in the market necessarily attaining its equilib- rium? This belief is shared by many economists. It lies at the heart of standard microeconomic theory.

If we consider that the essential question facing individualist societies can be expressed as follows: “how can a multitude of private decisions, taken independently by each agent on the sole basis of his individual preferences and beliefs, be made into a coherent whole?”, then the pure perfect competition market provides an exemplary answer. Firstly, the market respects the autonomy of agents in the determination of their objectives and preferences. Coordination in trading is always a posteriori: it involves no a priori restriction on preferences, no prior subjection that may limit the freedom of the traders by obliging them ex ante to respect certain collective objectives that are deemed to be legitimate or desirable. Each individual pursues what he considers to be his own personal interest. Secondly, this scrupulous respect of individual autonomy, espoused by liberal economists as the cornerstone of ethical values in trading relations, does not result in social anarchy. Competition, through the operation of flexible prices, produces a structure of mutually advantageous transactions such that individual intentions end up converging. In this perspective, it is the mechanism of price flexibility which ensures the global coherence of individual actions, what is commonly referred to as the “invisible hand”.

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Background and problems

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Microeconomics, 微观经济学, 经济代写

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|The choice rules in dynamic situations

In the dynamic form of classical decision theory, the decision-maker and nature intervene sequentially. The conjoined consequences of a succession of actions and states are only defined at the end of the sequence. The “extensive form” of the decision problem is expressed by a “decision tree”. The decision-maker and nature play alternately at successive nodes, and the vertices issued from each non-terminal node represent the options available to the agent whose has the move. Each terminal node expresses the consequences (usually in monetary terms) for the decision-maker of the trajectory leading to this node. Nature is always independent of the decision-maker. Its successive moves may be independent, but may be correlated too. Especially, Nature may first define a state and further supply messages which specify this state. Moreover, the law governing the production of states is assumed to be stationary. Finally, in an extensive form game, a “strategy” of the decision-maker is the prior choice of an action at each node where he may play.

Within this framework, the choice rules defined in statics are extended and a new principle appears: the “backward induction principle”. This postulates that the decision-maker determines his actions by starting from the horizon of the decision tree and progressively working backwards in time along the decision tree. For example, for a (sequential) decision problem under objective uncertainty, he progressively moves back along the nodes of the tree (from the terminal nodes through to the initial node) by considering, if the node corresponds to a move by nature, the expected utility on all the possible resulting states and, if the node corresponds to one of his moves, the maximum utility on all his possible actions. Expected utility is measured with the probabilities attributed to each state, which are conditional on the information already received in the past about the trajectory considered in the tree.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|An example of dynamic choice

As an illustration, take the example of Savage’s omelette (Savage, 1954), in which a cook wishes to make an omelette constituted of $n$ eggs. He has at his disposal a batch of eggs, a bowl B and a saucer $\mathrm{S}$. By hypothesis, the egg has a cost $a$ and is good (with a probability $1-p$ ) or bad (with a probability $p$ ). For making his omelette, the cook can break each egg directly in the bowl or provisionally in the saucer. Breaking an egg provisionally in the saucer has the advantage of not spoiling the whole content already in the bowl, but at some tranfert cost $b$. When the bowl contains $n$ eggs, the omelette is cooked and sold at price $c$ and the cycle starts again.

The possible configurations of the system are the $(n+1)$ situations corresponding to the number of eggs in the bowl (from 0 to $n$ ). A strategy of the cook consists in deciding, in each configuration, whether to break the next egg in the bowl or the saucer. The problem to be solved by the cook is to determine the strategy to be followed in order to maximize his profit.

In the case of an omelette with only 2 eggs, we can present the process (fig 1.1.) in the following manner (the nodes of the decision maker are represented by squares in which the configuration attained is noted and the nodes of nature are represented by circles):

The optimal strategy is obtained by writing the Bellman conditions on the three possible configurations and by grouping together the common consequences of the alternative actions:

\begin{aligned} &U_0=a+\delta p U_0+\delta(1-p) U_1+\max (0, b) \ &U_1=a+\delta(1-p) U_2+\max \left(\delta p U_0, \delta p U_1+b\right) \ &U_2=c+\delta U_0 \end{aligned}
When the bowl is empty, as $b$ is negative, the egg must always be broken into the bowl, so that the first equation becomes:
$$(1-\delta p) U_0=a+\delta(1-p) U_1$$
When the bowl contains one egg, $U_1$ is obtained by the previous equation and the following equation:
$$U_1=a+\delta(1-p)\left(c+\delta U_0\right)+\max \left(\delta p U_0, \delta p U_1+b\right)$$
There are two optimal strategies depending on the values of the parameters; more precisely, the probability of the second egg being bad admits a critical threshold $p_c$ such that:

• if $p<p_c$, always break the egg into the bowl;
• if $p>p_c$, always break the egg into the saucer.

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|An example of dynamic choice

$$U_0=a+\delta p U_0+\delta(1-p) U_1+\max (0, b) \quad U_1=a+\delta(1-p) U_2+\max \left(\delta p U_0, \delta p U_1+b\right) U_2=c+\delta U_0$$
$$(1-\delta p) U_0=a+\delta(1-p) U_1$$

$$U_1=a+\delta(1-p)\left(c+\delta U_0\right)+\max \left(\delta p U_0, \delta p U_1+b\right)$$

• 如果 $p<p_c$ ，总是将鸡蛋打入碗中;
• 如果 $p>p_c$ ，总是把鸡蛋打入碟子里。

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

Posted on Categories:Microeconomics, 微观经济学, 经济代写

## avatest™帮您通过考试

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Die Gewinnmaximierung

Im Folgenden wenden wir uns der Analyse der Gewinnmaximierung zu. In diesem Abschnitt stellen wir die Frage, ob die Unternehmen in der Tat danach streben, den Gewinn zu maximieren. Im Anschluss daran, in Abschnitt 8.3, wird eine Regel beschrieben, die von jedem Unternehmen – unabhängig davon, ob es in einem Wettbewerbsmarkt agiert oder nicht – zur Ermittlung des gewinnmaximierenden Produktionsniveaus eingesetzt werden kann. Dann werden wir den Spezialfall eines Unternehmens in einem Wettbewerbsmarkt untersuchen. Wir unterscheiden die Nachfragekurve, mit der ein Wettbewerbsunternehmen konfrontiert wird, von der Marktnachfragekurve und verwenden diese Informationen zur Beschreibung der Gewinnmaximierungsregel eines Wettbewerbsunternehmens.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Maximieren Unternehmen ihre Gewinne?

Die Annahme der Gewinnmaximierung wird in der Mikroökonomie häufig eingesetzt, da damit das Verhalten der Unternehmen mit angemessener Genauigkeit vorhergesagt werden kann und unnötige analytische Komplikationen vermieden werden. Allerdings ist die Frage, ob Unternehmen danach streben, ihre Gewinne zu maximieren, umstritten.

Bei kleineren Unternehmen, die von ihren Eigentümern geleitet werden, dominiert wahrscheinlich der Gewinn bei fast allen Entscheidungen. Bei größeren Unternehmen stehen die Führungskräfte, die Routineentscheidungen treffen, allerdings normalerweise wenig im Kontakt mit den Eigentümern (d.h. den Aktionären). Infolgedessen können die Eigentümer das Verhalten der Führungskräfte des Unternehmens nicht regelmäßig überwachen. Somit steht den Führungskräften ein gewisser Spielraum bei der Unternehmensführung zur Verfügung, und sie können vom gewinnmaximierenden Verhalten abweichen.

Die Führungskräfte können sich eventuell mehr mit Zielen wie der Umsatzmaximierung, der Umsatzsteigerung oder der Zahlung von Dividenden zur Zufriedenstellung der Aktionäre beschäftigen. Sie könnten sich auch auf Kosten der längerfristigen Gewinne übermäßig auf die kurzfristigen Gewinne konzentrieren (vielleicht um befördert zu werden oder eine Prämie zu erhalten), obwohl die langfristige Gewinnmaximierung den Interessen der Aktionäre besser dient. ${ }^1$ Da die Beschaffung von technischen und Marketinginformationen teuer ist, arbeiten die Manager mitunter mit Hilfe von Faustregeln, für die keine vollkommenen Informationen notwendig sind. Gelegentlich verfolgen sie auch Strategien zum Beteiligungserwerb und/ oder zum Wachstum, die erheblich riskanter sind, als den Eigentümern des Unternehmens unter Umständen recht ist.

Der Anstieg der Anzahl von Konkursen von Unternehmen, insbesondere in den Bereichen Internet, Telekommunikation und Energie, in der letzten Zeit in Verbindung mit dem schnellen Anstieg der Gehälter von Geschäftsführern hat Fragen nach den Motiven der Führungskräfte in großen Unternehmen aufgeworfen. Dies sind wichtige Themen, denen wir uns in Kapitel 17 zuwenden werden, wenn die Anreize für Manager und Eigentümer detailliert erörtert werden. Für den Moment ist es wichtig zu erkennen, dass die Freiheit eines Managers, andere Ziele als die langfristige Gewinnmaximierung zu verfolgen, begrenzt ist. Wenn die Führungskräfte in der Tat solche Ziele verfolgen, können sie durch die Aktionäre oder den Aufsichtsrat ausgetauscht oder das Unternehmen kann durch eine neue Geschäftsführung übernommen werden. Auf jeden Fall ist es unwahrscheinlich, dass Unternehmen, die ihre Gewinne nicht annähernd maximieren, überleben. Unternehmen, die in Wettbewerbsbranchen überleben, machen die langfristige Gewinnmaximierung zu einer ihrer höchsten Prioritäten.

Folglich ist unsere Arbeitshypothese der Gewinnmaximierung einleuchtend. Unternehmen, die schon seit langer Zeit im Geschäft sind, konzentrieren sich wahrscheinlich sehr auf die Gewinne – unabhängig davon, was ihre Führungskräfte darüber hinaus zu tun scheinen. So kann beispielsweise ein Unternehmen, das das öffentliche Fernsehen unterstützt, gemeinnützig und uneigennützig erscheinen. Allerdings liegt diese Wohltätigkeit wahrscheinlich im langfristigen finanziellen Interesse des Unternehmens, da durch diese Spenden ein ideeller Wert geschaffen wird.

# 微观经济学代写

## 经济代写|微观经济学代考Microeconomics代写|Maximieren Unternehmen ihre Gewinne?

avatest.org 为您提供可靠及专业的论文代写服务以便帮助您完成您学术上的需求，让您重新掌握您的人生。我们将尽力给您提供完美的论文，并且保证质量以及准时交稿。除了承诺的奉献精神，我们的专业写手、研究人员和校对员都经过非常严格的招聘流程。所有写手都必须证明自己的分析和沟通能力以及英文水平，并通过由我们的资深研究人员和校对员组织的面试。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。