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## 物理代写|计算物理代写Computational physics代考|Turing’s Computability

Many philosophical accounts of computing subscribe, in one way or another, to the notion that “to compute” is to follow or to execute an effective procedure or an algorithm. I use the terms effective computation, effective calculation, and algorithmic computation interchangeably in reference to any computation (calculation) performed by means of an effective procedure or an algorithm of this sort (in Chapter 3, however, I consider drawing a distinction between effective procedures and algorithms). Similarly, a function (of positive numbers) is deemed effectively computable (calculable) if, as Church puts it, “there exists an algorithm for the calculation of its values” (1936a: 102). In the following chapters, my aim is to cut through the tight relationship between algorithms and physical computation. The first step, made in this chapter, is to separate the notions of algorithmic computation, as studied by Church, Turing, and the other founders of computability, and that of machine computation (at this point I will use the more general term machine; however, I will gradually disambiguate it to distinguish between physical systems and other kinds of machines).

This chapter focuses on Turing’s analysis, which reduces effective computability to Turing machine computability (Turing 1936: sec. 9). Turing’s analysis is of interest for several reasons. First, Turing provided a precise characterization of what is effectively computable (in terms of Turing machine computability). Second, while there were others who offered a precise characterization of effective computability around the same time, Turing’s characterization stands out in that it involves an analysis of the process of computing. Third, Turing introduced the notion of an automatic machine (now known as a Turing machine). ${ }^{1}$ This notion lies at the heart of computability theory and automata theory even today. Turing also introduced the notion of a universal Turing machine: a Turing machine that can simulate the operations of any particular Turing machine, and can thereby compute any function that is computable by any Turing machine. This notion has inspired the development of general-purpose digital electronic computers that now dominate virtually every activity in daily life.

## 物理代写|计算物理代写Computational physics代考|The 1936 Affair

Four pioneering papers were published in 1936 , each of which provides a precise mathematical characterization of effective computability. Alonzo Church (1936a) characterized the effectively computable functions (over the positives) in terms of lambda-definability – an undertaking he began in the early 1930s (Church 1933), and which was carried on by Stephen Kleene and Barkley Rosser. Kleene (1936) characterized the general recursive functions, based on the expansion of primitive recursiveness by Herbrand (1931) and Gödel (1934). ${ }^{3}$ Emil Post (1936) in New York described “finite combinatory processes” carried out by a “problem solver or worker” (p. 289). Meanwhile, young Alan Turing in Cambridge provided a somewhat similar characterization, but offere the precise characterization in terms of Turing machines. Although Turing was referring to the computability of real numbers, he remarked that “it is almost equally easy to define and investigate computable functions” (p. 58) of countable domains. ${ }^{4}$ All these precise characterizations were quickly proven to be extensionally equivalent, as they all define the same class of functions. ${ }^{5}$

Church and Turing-and to some degree Post-formulated versions of what is now known as the Church-Turing thesis (CTT). Church’s classic formulation was as follows:
We now define the notion, already discussed, of an effectively calculable function of positive integers by identifying it with the notion of a recursive function of positive integers (or of a $\lambda$-definable function of positive integers). (Church 1936a: 100)
Kleene coined the term thesis and formulated the thesis as follows:
Thesis I. Every effectively calculable function (effectively decidable predicate) is general recursive. (Kleene 1943: 60) ${ }^{6}$
In this book, we will adhere to Kleene’s formulation. The statement is called a “thesis” because it links a pre-theoretical notion-that of effective (algorithmic) calculability-with the precise notion of general recursiveness, or Turing machine computability. ${ }^{7}$ Arguably, due to the pre-theoretical notion, such a statement is not subject to mathematical proof. ${ }^{8}$ But we will leave aside questions of provability and focus on what is meant by “effective computation.” To address this, we should first explicate the motives that prompted the attempts to characterize computability, which culminated in the so-called 1936 Affair.

## 物理代写|计算物理代写Computational physics代考|The 1936 Affair

1936 年发表了四篇开创性的论文，每一篇都提供了有效可计算性的精确数学表征。Alonzo Church (1936a) 用 lambda 可定义性来描述有效可计算函数（超过正数）——他在 1930 年代初期开始了这项工作（Church 1933），由 Stephen Kleene 和 Barkley Rosser 进行。Kleene (1936) 基于 Herbrand (1931) 和 Gödel (1934) 对原始递归性的扩展描述了一般递归函数。3纽约的 Emil Post (1936) 描述了由“问题解决者或工人”执行的“有限组合过程”（第 289 页）。与此同时，剑桥的年轻艾伦图灵提供了一些类似的表征，但提供了图灵机方面的精确表征。虽然图灵指的是实数的可计算性，但他表示“定义和研究可计算函数几乎同样容易”（第 58 页）可数域。4所有这些精确的表征很快就被证明是外延等价的，因为它们都定义了同一类函数。5

Church 和 Turing——以及在某种程度上是现在被称为 Church-Turing 论文 (CTT) 的后制定版本。Church 的经典表述如下：

Kleene 创造了术语论文并将论文表述如下：

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。