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# 物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|KIN312 Introduction to Testing

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## 物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|Introduction to Testing

Almost everyone has been tested at some point in their lives. Within minutes of being born, many of us were given a numeric score. The APGAR (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration) assessment is used to provide a numeric score that is evaluated against a set of criterion-referenced standards for determining the health of newborns. Throughout our early months, measurements are taken of our height and weight and other body dimensions, such as head circumference, in order to monitor our growth and development. This is done by comparing our scores against norm-referenced standards from other children of a similar age and sex. We continue to be tested throughout our school years, most notably on our learning and knowledge, and testing continues throughout the rest of our lives. Information from tests is used to make important decisions about us; admission to college, job offers, promotions, and other important life events hang on the outcomes of testing situations. We therefore have plenty of experience with tests from the perspective of a test-taker, and of having decisions made about us by others, based on our test scores. In this chapter, we provide insight into testing from the perspective of the test user or administrator.

Testing has several functions, or purposes, and is important for societal reasons with regards to health, fitness, and education. Kinesiology covers a broad range of disciplines and professions, such as exercise science, physical education, physical therapy, coaching, and sport management. Within these subdisciplines of kinesiology there is an array of different types of tests to choose from, but the principles of testing remain broadly the same regardless of the type of test you are using. Testing situations can vary from individual testing that takes up to 1 or 2 hours to accomplish (e.g., a maximal treadmill exercise test given to a single client or clinical patient) to mass testing, in which several people are tested simultaneously over a relatively short period (such as a PACER test given to a whole class). In some situations, the testing is performed by a professional, such as a physical education teacher or clinical exercise physiologist; in other situations, we may need to rely on the participant or co-participant to conduct the test. An example of the latter would be a participant submitting pedometer scores via an online survey or pairs of students in a class counting each other’s push-ups. Within kinesiology, therefore, the nature of the testing situation varies considerably. In this chapter, we will guide you through the factors you should consider and help you to decide which factors are the most important in any given testing situation. Throughout, practical examples will be used to illustrate the concepts, so that when you meet terms such as reliability, validity, and evaluation in your studies and research you will understand them in the context of how you will apply them in practical testing situations in kinesiology.

## 物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|The Nature and Purpose of Testing

When you hear the word test, what comes to mind? For most people, a test was something they took at school (also called an exam), requiring them to respond to a set of questions in order to assess their level of learning and knowledge. Much of measurement theory and practice in kinesiology evolved from educational testing, and it is sometimes useful to think of a test in this way. Drawing on personal experiences can be helpful in understanding the relevant principles of testing. However, tests, or measurement instruments, in kinesiology take many more shapes and forms than a paper-and-pencil exam and can pose some unique challenges to the tester. Table $2.1$ lists several examples of types of tests used in kinesiology. It lists the tests by category and describes the construct measured by each test.

The construct is the underlying characteristic we wish to assess. Although some constructs in kinesiology are very tangible and concrete, such as height or strength, others are more abstract and less directly observable. For psychological constructs such as motivation or attitude, we have to use an indirect measure (such as by asking participants to respond to questions that aim to tap into their underlying thoughts and emotions). The Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ; Mullan, Markland, \& Ingledew, 1997) poses a series of statements such as “It’s important to me to exercise regularly” and “I value the benefits of exercise” in order to measure motivation. Participants respond on a numeric scale ranging from 0 (“Not true for me”) to 4 (“Very true for me”). Their responses are indicative of their underlying level of motivation for exercise. Even quite straightforward constructs such as body fatness often require indirect methods of measurement, because much of our body fat is hidden deep within our body, around our organs. The body plethysmograph (or Bod Pod) measures body fatness by enclosing the body in an airtight box and measuring air displacement. It thus allows us to estimate the body’s volume, from which we can calculate body density, and, using assumptions about the density of fat and fat-free tissue, we then estimate the percent of body weight that is body fat. This is quite indirect!

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