Posted on Categories:Welding Principle, 焊接原理, 物理代写

# 物理代写|焊接原理代写Welding Principle代考|API577 Steelmaking in the United States

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## 物理代写|焊接原理代写Welding Principle代考|Steelmaking in the United States

The history of the iron and steel industry in North America extends back over 300 years, beginning with a successful ironworks in Saugus, Massachusetts, about 20 miles northeast of Boston. It operated from 1646 to 1670. Through the support of the American Iron and Steel Institute, this site has been restored and is open to the public.

Very little steel was manufactured in America during the early days. The first patent was issued in Connecticut in 1728. A succession of events spurred the growth of the steel industry:

New uses for iron

The discovery of large iron ore deposits in northern Michigan

The development of the Bessemer and open hearth processes

The Civil War and America’s explosive industrial growth following the war

World Wars I and II
Currently the largest steel producer in the world is China at $500.5$ metric tons. The European Union is second with $198.0$ metric tons, followed by Japan with $118.7$ metric tons and the United States with $91.4$ metric tons. Other major producers are Russia at $68.5$, India at $55.2$, South Korea at $53.6$, Germany at $45.8$, Ukraine at $37.1$, Brazil at $33.7$, Italy at $30.6$, Turkey at 26.8, Taiwan at 19.9, France at 17.9, Spain at 18.6, and Mexico at 17.2.

Annual steel production in the United States, as indicated, is just over 90 metric tons. Steelmaking facilities have changed greatly over the last few decades. Where there used to be nearly 250 blast furnaces, there are now only 36 blast furnaces for the production of iron and no open hearth furnaces being used. The principal reason for this reduction is the increased use of recycled steel. With more than 1,220 furnaces worldwide it is possible to meet the demand for steel. Nearly 40 percent of all industrial jobs in the United States involve the making of steel or the use of steel.

## 物理代写|焊接原理代写Welding Principle代考|Raw Materials for the Making of Steel

Huge quantities of raw materials are needed to produce the vast amount of steel needed by humankind. The United States is well-supplied with the basic resources such as iron ore, limestone, and coal. The principal supplies of manganese, tin, nickel, and chromium necessary to the making of steel and its alloys are found in other countries.

As stated earlier, iron occurs in nature in the form of compounds with oxygen. In order to obtain the iron, the oxygen is removed in a blast furnace by contact with carbon. Coke, a coal product, is the usual source of carbon. In this process the iron becomes contaminated with some of the carbon. This extra carbon is in turn removed in the steelmaking processes by using controlled amounts of oxygen. The resulting product is formed into various shapes by rolling or other processes. Steel may also be heat treated.

Bessemer和平炉法的发展

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