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# 金融代写|风险建模代写Risk Modeling代考|ENGG5103 RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

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## 金融代写|风险建模代写Risk Modeling代考|Holistic Approach

Good management of both technological and non-technological systems must address the holistic nature of the system in terms of its hierarchical, organizational, and fundamental decisionmaking structure. Also to be considered are the multiple noncommensurate objectives, subobjectives, and sub-subobjectives, including all types of important and relevant risks, the various time horizons, the multiple decisionmakers, constituencies, power brokers, stakeholders, and users of the system, as well as a host of institutional legal, and other socioeconomic conditions. Thus, risk management raises several fundamental philosophical and methodological questions [Bernstein, 1996; Burke et al., 1993; Fischhoff et al., 1983; Krimsky and Golding, 1992; Kunreuther and Slovic, 1996; Lewis, 1992; Wernick, 1995; Kaplan et al., 2001; Hall, 1989; NRC, 2002].

## 金融代写|风险建模代写Risk Modeling代考|The Evolution of Risk Analysis

In March 1961, Norbert Wiener, who is considered by many to be one of the fathers of what is known today as systems engineering, wrote the following in the Preface of the second edition of his book Cybernetics [Wiener, 1961]:
If a new scientific subject has real vitality, the center of interest in it must and should shift in the course of years…The role of information and the techniques of measuring and transmitting information constitute a whole discipline for the engineer, for the physiologist, for the psychologist, and for the sociologist. … Thus it behooves the cybernetics to move in on new fields and to transfer a large part of his attention to ideas which have arisen….
If one accepts the premise that good and appropriate technology management must be grounded in a holistic approach and based on Wiener’s philosophical and almost prophetic statements, then it is possible that what we are witnessing today is a shift of the center of interest, an evolution toward a more holistic approach to management. Is knowledge from diverse disciplines converging into a more coherent, albeit still heterogeneous, aggregate of theory, methodologies, tools, and heuristics? To highlight this evolutionary process, let us consider Wiener’s “shift” from single-objective modeling and optimization to multiple-objective modeling and optimization. The $1970 \mathrm{~s}$ saw the emphasis shift from the dominance of singleobjective modeling and optimization toward an emphasis on multiple objectives. During the past three decades, the consideration of multiple objectives in modeling and decisionmaking has grown by leaps and bounds. This has led to the emergence of a new field that has come to be known as multiple criteria decisionmaking (MCDM). MCDM has emerged as a philosophy that integrates common sense with empirical, quantitative, normative, descriptive, and value-judgment-based analysis. MCDM, as a subset of systems engineering, is also a philosophy that is supported by advanced systems concepts (e.g., data management procedures, modeling methodologies, optimization and simulation techniques, and decisionmaking approaches) that are grounded in both the arts and sciences for the ultimate purpose of improving the decisionmaking process. Multiple objectives are incorporated into most modeling and optimization of technological systems today.

## 金融代写|风险建模代写Risk Modeling代考|The Evolution of Risk Analysis

1961 年 3 月，被许多人认为是当今系统工程之父之一的诺伯特·维纳（Norbert Wiener）在他的著作《控制论》（维纳，1961 年）第二版的序言中写道
：科学学科具有真正的生命力，它的兴趣中心必须而且应该随着时间的推移而改变……信息的作用以及测量和传输信息的技术构成了工程师、生理学家、心理学家的一门完整学科，和社会学家。……因此，控制论应该进入新的领域并将他的大部分注意力转移到已经出现的想法上……

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。